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UNLABELLED MicroRNAs are fine tuners of diverse biological responses and are expressed in various cell types of the liver. Here we hypothesized that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as biomarkers of liver damage and inflammation. We studied miRNA-122, which is abundant in hepatocytes, and miR-155, -146a, and -125b, which regulate inflammation in(More)
UNLABELLED Chronic alcohol causes hepatic steatosis and liver hypoxia. Hypoxia-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α, (HIF-1α) may regulate liporegulatory genes, but the relationship of HIF-1 to steatosis remains unknown. We investigated HIF-1α in alcohol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. Alcohol administration resulted in steatosis, increased liver(More)
Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β. IL-1β production requires caspase-1 activation by inflammasomes-multiprotein complexes that are assembled in response to danger signals. We hypothesized that alcohol-induced inflammasome activation contributes to increased IL-1β in the brain. WT and TLR4-, NLRP3-,(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its coreceptor, myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2), are key in recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and activation of proinflammatory pathways. Here we tested the hypothesis that TLR4 and its coreceptor MD-2 play a central role in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver(More)
Albumin is a well-characterized product of the liver. In the present study, objectives were to determine if the albumin gene is also expressed in various nonhepatic tissues in the bovine; whether mammary gland epithelial cells synthesize albumin; and how its synthesis is affected by bovine mastitis. Albumin expression was monitored using reverse(More)
BACKGROUND Reactive oxygen species contribute to steatosis and inflammation in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Here, we evaluated the selective contribution of p47phox, a critical subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH) oxidase complex, in liver parenchymal cells and in bone marrow (BM)-derived cells. METHODS Female C57Bl/6(More)
The effects of different food deprivation regimens on the thermogenic activity and capacity of brown adipose tissue in the golden hamster have been investigated. Thermogenesis in the tissue was assessed by measurements of tissue cytochrome-c oxidase activity, mitochondrial GDP binding, and the specific mitochondrial concentration of uncoupling protein. The(More)
Bovine mammary gland tissue from 4- to 6-mo-old calves was grafted s.c. (dorsum) to 7- to 9-wk-old female athymic "nude" mice. The graft-bearing mice were divided into three groups and were treated with the following hormonal combinations: 1) implantation of a pellet containing estrogen and progesterone followed by injection of estrogen and progesterone, 2)(More)