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BACKGROUND Linguistic analysis is of great potential benefit to psychiatry as a research and assessment tool, but the skill and time it demands means that it has not been widely used. This paper describes a much simplified form of syntactic analysis. METHOD A detailed protocol for the Brief Syntactic Analysis (BSA) was written, based on earlier work by(More)
BACKGROUND In this paper we consider verbal hallucinations as inner speech with pragmatics. The specific pragmatic properties of verbal hallucinations investigated included the number of voices, the characteristics that individuate the voices, the sequential characteristics of the dialogues between voice hearers and their voices, the dialogical positioning(More)
This paper concerns the discourse features of verbal hallucinations and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. A total of 46 schizophrenics, varying in verbal hallucination and in negative symptoms status, and 22 controls were tested on the Reporter Test. The frequency with which they issued inadequate instructions, attempted to repair the inadequacies, and(More)
BACKGROUND Having a 'theory of mind' (ToM) means that one appreciates one's own and others' mental states, and that this appreciation guides interactions with others. It has been proposed that ToM is impaired in schizophrenia and experimental studies show that patients with schizophrenia have problems with ToM, particularly during acute episodes. The model(More)
This paper reports results of a study on self-monitoring in speech production. Thirty schizophrenics, varying in verbal hallucination and in negative symptoms status, and 17 controls were tested on the reporter test. The position of interruptions of the speech-flow to repair errors was used to indicate whether the detection of the errors was through(More)
Written language samples from 45 schizophrenic patients were compared with those from 15 manics and 18 non-psychiatrically ill control subjects. We used the Hunt test to generate written language samples. This consists of 32 simple propositions describing the manufacture of Aluminum. Subjects are asked to rewrite the propositions in a more concise style.(More)
The communication of eight Down syndrome individuals with strangers and with acquaintances was analysed. The spontaneity of their speech and the communicative demands they made on their audiences were found to be low. Some of them broke rules of conversation by not answering questions. Surprisingly, their speech was not more spontaneous with acquaintances.(More)
The word "phenomenology" has a number of meanings. In this paper we briefly contrast the different meanings of the word in psychiatry and philosophy. We then consider the work of the philosophers Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, as examples of what Hubert Dreyfus calls ontological phenomenology, in contrast to an epistemological approach. We present a brief(More)
This paper raises the possibility that a dialogical, or discursive, model of human experience may be useful in helping someone who experiences verbal hallucinations. The model regards verbal hallucinations as a variety of inner speech with dialogical properties. The explication of these properties in the context of a personal narrative allowed the(More)