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Functional neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia have demonstrated abnormal activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during working memory (WM) performance. However, findings of increased and decreased activity have been reported. The authors used meta-analysis to investigate whether diverging results arise as a function of differential WM task(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuroimaging studies have provided robust evidence that schizophrenia is associated with structural brain abnormalities. However, the underlying pathophysiology of these changes is still unknown. By evaluating brain morphology early in the course of illness, confounding effects of treatment and duration of illness are minimized. The goal of this(More)
We examined the pattern of neuroanatomic abnormalities in adults with Down's syndrome (DS) and the cognitive correlates of these abnormalities. Specifically, we compared this pattern with what would be predicted by the hypotheses attributing DS pathology to either premature aging or Alzheimer's disease. We measured a number of brain regions on MRIs of 25(More)
OBJECTIVE Although cognitive deficits are prominent in symptomatic patients with bipolar disorder, the extent and pattern of cognitive impairment in euthymic patients remain uncertain. METHOD Neuropsychological studies comparing euthymic bipolar patients and healthy controls were evaluated. Across studies, effect sizes reflecting patient-control(More)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate putative neural substrates of long-term (delayed) memory in schizophrenia and young healthy controls. Ten "low" and 10 "high" memory patients were selected from a large sample of DSM-III-R diagnosed schizophrenia spectrum patients, based on composite verbal and nonverbal delayed recall memory scores. Ten(More)
Polydipsic hyponatremic schizophrenic patients (PHS) exhibit enhanced plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP) and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress that appear attributable to anterior hippocampal dysfunction. Neuroanatomic and electrophysiologic studies indicate oxytocin activity in PHS patients should also be affected. Furthermore,(More)
Brain mechanisms involved in the maintenance of attention to auditory and visual stimuli at different spatial locations were assessed using positron emission tomography with [15O]water to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in 13 normal volunteers. Simultaneous auditory [dichotically presented consonant-vowel-consonants (CVCs)] and visual(More)
OBJECTIVES Although cognitive impairment is recognized as an important clinical feature of bipolar disorder, there is no standard cognitive battery that has been developed for use in bipolar disorder research. The aims of this paper were to identify the cognitive measures from the literature that show the greatest magnitude of impairment in bipolar(More)
OBJECTIVE Although cognitive impairment is an important clinical feature of bipolar disorder, it is unknown whether deficits are present at illness onset. The purpose of this study was to determine whether neuropsychological impairments are present in clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder shortly after resolution of their first manic episode. (More)
It is not known with certainty at which level of face processing by the cortex the distinction between a familiar and an unfamiliar face is made. Subdural electrodes were implanted under the fusiform gyrus of the right temporal lobe in a patient who developed an unusual inability to distinguish differences between faces as part of the epileptic aura ("all(More)