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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Selective autophagy can be mediated via receptor molecules that link specific cargoes to the autophagosomal membranes decorated by ubiquitin-like microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) modifiers. Although several autophagy receptors have been identified, little is known about mechanisms controlling their functions in vivo. In this work, we found(More)
The mechanisms by which mitogenic G-protein-coupled receptors activate the MAP kinase signalling pathway are poorly understood. Candidate protein tyrosine kinases that link G-protein-coupled receptors with MAP kinase include Src family kinases, the epidermal growth factor receptor, Lyn and Syk. Here we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and bradykinin(More)
Autophagy is a catabolic process where cytosolic cellular components are delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Recent studies have indicated the existence of specific receptors, such as p62, which link ubiquitinated targets to autophagosomal degradation pathways. Here we show that NBR1 (neighbor of BRCA1 gene 1) is an autophagy receptor containing LC3-(More)
Ubiquitination is the hallmark of protein degradation by the 26S proteasome. However, the proteasome is limited in its capacity to degrade oligomeric and aggregated proteins. Removal of harmful protein aggregates is mediated by autophagy, a mechanism by which the cell sequesters cytosolic cargo and delivers it for degradation by the lysosome. Identification(More)
Many cellular proteins are post-translationally modified by the addition of a single ubiquitin or a polyubiquitin chain. Among these are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), which undergo ligand-dependent ubiquitination. The ubiquitination of RTKs has become recognized as an important signal for their endocytosis and degradation in the lysosome; however, it is(More)
Translesion synthesis (TLS) is the major pathway by which mammalian cells replicate across DNA lesions. Upon DNA damage, ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) induces bypass of the lesion by directing the replication machinery into the TLS pathway. Yet, how this modification is recognized and interpreted in the cell remains unclear.(More)
SHARPIN is a ubiquitin-binding and ubiquitin-like-domain-containing protein which, when mutated in mice, results in immune system disorders and multi-organ inflammation. Here we report that SHARPIN functions as a novel component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and that the absence of SHARPIN causes dysregulation of NF-κB and apoptotic(More)
Autophagy is the cellular homeostatic pathway that delivers large cytosolic materials for degradation in the lysosome. Recent evidence indicates that autophagy mediates selective removal of protein aggregates, organelles and microbes in cells. Yet, the specificity in targeting a particular substrate to the autophagy pathway remains poorly understood. Here,(More)