Learn More
Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens modulates both motivational and addictive behaviors. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are generally considered to exert opposite effects at the cellular level, but many behavioral studies find an apparent cooperative effect of D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Here, we show that a dopamine-induced enhancement of(More)
Short- and long-term ethanol exposures have been shown to alter cellular levels of cAMP, but little is known about the effects of ethanol on cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). When cAMP levels increase, the catalytic subunit of PKA (C alpha) is released from the regulatory subunit, phosphorylates nearby proteins, and then translocates to the nucleus,(More)
In this paper random-effects logistic models are used to analyze the effects of the preceding birth interval on postneonatal mortality in Brazil, controlling for the correlation of survival outcomes between siblings. The results are compared to those obtained by using ordinary logistic regression. Family effects are found to be highly significant in the(More)
Antagonists of adenosine A2A receptors (A2A -antagonists) with different chemical structures have been developed by several pharmaceutical companies for the potential treatment of Parkinson's disease. Pharmacological characterization of these antagonists was incomplete, and different assay conditions were used in different labs. Therefore, we characterized(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in many neuroadaptive responses to ethanol in the nervous system. PKC activation results in translocation of the enzyme from one intracellular site to another. Compartmentalization of PKC isozymes is regulated by targeting proteins such as receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs). It is possible, therefore, that(More)
Recent advances in neuroscience have made it possible to investigate the pathophysiology of alcoholism at a cellular and molecular level. Evidence indicates that ethanol affects hormone- and neurotransmitter-activated signal transduction, leading to short-term changes in regulation of cellular functions and long-term changes in gene expression. Such changes(More)
Relapse is the most serious limitation of effective medical treatment of opiate addiction. Opiate-related behaviors appear to be modulated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1) through poorly understood cross-talk mechanisms. Opiate and CB1 receptors are coexpressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum. These regions also have the highest density(More)
In addition to decreasing the incidence of myocardial infarction, recent epidemiological data suggest that regular alcohol consumption improves survival after myocardial infarction. We recently found that chronic ethanol exposure induces long-term protection against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury, which improves myocardial recovery after infarction.(More)
Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of l-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other(More)
We found previously that neural responses to ethanol and the dopamine D2 receptor (D2) agonist 2,10,11-trihydroxy-N-propylnorapomorphine hydrobromide (NPA) involve both epsilon protein kinase C (epsilonPKC) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). However, little is known about the mechanism underlying ethanol- and D2-mediated activation of epsilonPKC and(More)