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Saliva inoculated by sandfly females during feeding stimulated production of high levels of anti-saliva antibodies. To determine whether 3 species of the genus Phlebotomus have species-specific salivary antigens we performed dot-blots and immunoblots using sera from mice, hamsters and rabbits repeatedly bitten by sandflies. Important differences were found(More)
Sand fly saliva plays an important role in Leishmania transmission. We characterized the host antibody response to saliva from 3 sand fly species. Specific IgG was observed in sera from experimentally bitten mice as well as in sera from individuals living in the endemic area of Leishmania tropica in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Sera of Sanliurfa inhabitants showed(More)
Sandflies (Diptera: Phlebotominael are vectors of Leishmania parasites, causative agents of important human and animal diseases with diverse manifestations. This review summarizes present knowledge about the vectorial part of Leishmania life cycle and parasite transmission to the vertebrate host. Particularly, it focuses on molecules that determine the(More)
Under laboratory conditions, hosts exposed twice to sand fly saliva are protected against severe leishmaniasis. However, people in endemic areas are exposed to the vector over a long term and may experience sand fly-free periods. Therefore, we exposed mice long- or short-term to Phlebotomus duboscqi bites, followed by Leishmania major infection either(More)
The feeding success of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) is linked to the vast array of pharmacological substances in their saliva, which interferes with the host haemostasis and immune response. Modification of feeding site plays also an important role in Leishmania transmission. In naive hosts, co-inoculation of saliva and Leishmania parasites increases(More)
BACKGROUND Sand fly saliva plays an important role in blood feeding and Leishmania transmission as it was shown to increase parasite virulence. On the other hand, immunity to salivary components impedes the establishment of infection. Therefore, it is most desirable to gain a deeper insight into the composition of saliva in sand fly species which serve as(More)
Sand flies are bloodsucking insects transmitting parasites of genus Leishmania, the causative agents of diseases in humans and dogs. Experimental hosts repeatedly exposed to sand fly saliva can control Leishmania infection. Cell-mediated anti-saliva immune response is most likely responsible for this protective effect; however, there is no study so far(More)
Saliva of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) plays an important role in transmission of Leishmania parasites by modulating host immune response. However, because of the different protein compositions of saliva, the immunomodulatory effects may vary among sand fly species. We have therefore analysed and compared the immunomodulation effects of salivary(More)
Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is transmitted from dogs to humans by sand flies and Lutzomyia longipalpis is a major vector of this disease. We studied the antibody response in dogs experimentally exposed to L. longipalpis females to characterize sand fly salivary antigens recognized by canine sera and to find out whether(More)
BACKGROUND Phlebotomus tobbi is a vector of Leishmania infantum, and P. sergenti is a vector of Leishmania tropica. Le. infantum and Le. tropica typically cause visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively, but Le. infantum strains transmitted by P. tobbi can cause cutaneous disease. To better understand the components and possible implications of sand(More)