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During cell division, correct positioning of chromosomes in mitotic and meiotic spindles depends on interactions of microtubules with kinetochores and, especially in higher eukaryotes, with the chromosome arms [1, 2]. Chromokinesins, highly concentrated on mitotic and meiotic chromatin, are thought to actively push the chromosome arms toward the spindle(More)
The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is thought to adopt discrete "states" corresponding to different steady states of protein networks that govern changes in subcellular organization. For example, in Xenopus eggs, the interphase to mitosis transition is induced solely by activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) that phosphorylates many proteins leading(More)
The oocyte-to-embryo transition marks the onset of development. The initial phase of this profound change from the differentiated oocyte to the totipotent embryo occurs in the absence of both transcription and mRNA degradation. Here we combine global polysome profiling, ribosome-footprint profiling, and quantitative mass spectrometry in a comprehensive(More)
The onset of development is marked by two major, posttranscriptionally controlled, events: oocyte maturation (release of the prophase I primary arrest) and egg activation (release from the secondary meiotic arrest). Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we previously described proteome remodeling during Drosophila egg activation. Here, we describe our(More)
Translational regulation contributes to the control of archetypal and specialized cell cycles, such as the meiotic and early embryonic cycles. Late meiosis and early embryogenesis unfold in the absence of transcription, so they particularly rely on translational repression and activation of stored maternal mRNAs. Here, we present examples of cell cycle(More)
In metaphase Xenopus egg extracts, global microtubule growth is mainly promoted by two unrelated microtubule stabilizers, end-binding protein 1 (EB1) and XMAP215. Here, we explore their role and potential redundancy in the regulation of spindle assembly and function. We find that at physiological expression levels, both proteins are required for proper(More)
Altered spindle microtubule dynamics at anaphase onset are the basis for chromosome segregation. In Xenopus laevis egg extracts, increasing free calcium levels and subsequently rising calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) activity promote a release from meiosis II arrest and reentry into anaphase. CaMKII induces the activation of the(More)
Because maturing oocytes and early embryos lack appreciable transcription, posttranscriptional regulatory processes control their development. To better understand this control, we profiled translational efficiencies and poly(A)-tail lengths throughout Drosophila oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The correspondence between(More)
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