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Neurobiological research has shown the potential involvement of serotonergic, dopaminergic and opioid dysfunction in the pathophysiology of pathological gambling. In this review, we present current theories of the neuropathology of pathological gambling, paying particular attention to the role of the neural circuitry underlying motivation, reward,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of pindolol augmentation in treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients who were unsuccessfully treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. METHOD Fourteen treatment-resistant OCD patients were treated with paroxetine for 17.4+/-2.1 weeks up to 60 mg/d after they failed at least two other serotonin(More)
Antidepressant medication treatment has been associated with improvement in negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of escitalopram for the treatment of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Under double-blind conditions, 40 patients with chronic schizophrenia were randomized to add-on treatment(More)
Preventive intervention after exposure to traumatic events is a subject of increasing interest among mental health professionals. Psychological debriefing, which aims to reduce the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychopathological sequelae of traumatic experiences, is an example of such an intervention. The authors review the history of(More)
BACKGROUND Eating disorders have been reported to increase in frequency, but it is yet unclear what psychological characteristics increase the proneness toward the development of eating disorders. Alexithymia (AL; a difficulty in awareness to one's emotions) and dissociation proneness are 2 such plausible features. METHOD In this study, we evaluated the(More)
INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia patients display an extremely high rate of smoking. Neurosteroids appear to play a possible role in the pathophysiology and management of schizophrenia and have been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of nicotine addiction. Although many studies have evaluated blood levels of neurosteroids in schizophrenia patients,(More)
The outlook for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) began to change in the early 1980s with the introduction of clomipramine (CMI), a serotonergic antidepressant. The observation that only drugs with a serotonergic profile are effective in OCD has been the basis for the serotonergic hypothesis of OCD. The serotonin-selective reuptake(More)
The worldwide prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is approximately 2% of the general population. Symptoms of OCD include fear of contamination by dirt or germs; constant checking; repetitive, intrusive thoughts of a somatic, aggressive, or sexual nature; extreme slowness; and an inordinate concern with orderliness and symmetry. Differential(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare long-term lithium patients who developed renal insufficiency (RI) with those who did not, and to examine what characterized these groups. METHOD One hundred fourteen subjects with DSM-IV bipolar, major depressive, or schizoaffective disorder who had been taking lithium for 4 to 30 years from 1968 to 2000 were studied retrospectively.(More)
An emerging literature suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients are at an increased risk for suicide. The objective of this study was: a) to reexamine the relationship between PTSD and suicide by comparing suicide risks of persons with PTSD, to persons with anxiety disorder and to matched controls; and b) to examine the relationship(More)