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Augmenting antitumor immunity is a promising way to enhance the potency of oncolytic adenoviral therapy. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) can mediate antitumor effects by recruiting natural killer cells and by induction of tumor-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Serotype 5 adenoviruses (Ad5) are commonly used in cancer gene(More)
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) can mediate antitumor effects by recruiting natural killer cells and by induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cells through antigen-presenting cells. Oncolytic tumor cell-killing can produce a potent costimulatory danger signal and release of tumor epitopes for antigen-presenting cell sampling.(More)
The immunosuppressive environment of advanced tumors is a primary obstacle to the efficacy of immunostimulatory and vaccine approaches. Here, we report an approach to arm an oncolytic virus with CD40 ligand (CD40L) to stimulate beneficial immunologic responses in patients. A double-targeted chimeric adenovirus controlled by the hTERT promoter and expressing(More)
The safety of oncolytic viruses for treatment of cancer has been shown in clinical trials while antitumor efficacy has often remained modest. As expression of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor may be variable in advanced tumors, we developed Ad5-D24-RGD, a p16/Rb pathway selective oncolytic adenovirus featuring RGD-4C modification of the fiber. This allows(More)
Promising clinical results have been achieved with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as ipilimumab and tremelimumab that block cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4, CD152). However, systemic administration of these agents also has the potential for severe immune-related adverse events. Thus, local production might allow higher concentrations(More)
Oncolytic adenoviruses and certain chemotherapeutics can induce autophagy and immunogenic cancer cell death. We hypothesized that the combination of oncolytic adenovirus with low-dose temozolomide (TMZ) is safe, effective, and capable of inducing antitumor immune responses. Metronomic low-dose cyclophosphamide (CP) was added to selectively reduce regulatory(More)
Oncolytic viruses represent a multifaceted tool for cancer treatment. In addition to specific killing of cancer cells (oncolysis), these agents also provide danger signals prompting the immune system to stimulate an antitumor immune response. To increase adenovirus adjuvancy, we engineered the genome of Ad5D24 by inserting 18 immunostimulatory islands(More)
Oncolytic adenoviruses have been safe in clinical trials but the efficacy has been mostly limited. All published trials have been performed with serotype 5 based viruses. The expression level of the Ad5 receptor CAR may be variable in advanced tumors. In contrast, the Ad3 receptor remains unclear, but is known to be abundantly expressed in most tumors.(More)
Oncolytic adenoviruses are an emerging experimental approach for treatment of tumors refractory to available modalities. Although preclinical results have been promising, and clinical safety has been excellent, it is also apparent that tumors can become virus resistant. The resistance mechanisms acquired by advanced tumors against conventional therapies are(More)
Patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to and progressing after conventional therapies were treated with three different regimens of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CP) in combination with oncolytic adenovirus. CP was given with oral metronomic dosing (50 mg/day, N = 21), intravenously (single 1,000 mg dose, N = 7) or both (N = 7). Virus was injected(More)