Adopting an appropriate model for systems analysis, by avoiding a narrow focus on the requirements specification and increasing the use of the systems analyst's knowledge base, may lead to better software development and improved system life-cycle management.
Inotropic effects of electric currents applied during the refractory period have been reported in cardiac muscle in vitro using voltage-clamp techniques. We investigated how electric currents modulate cardiac contractility in normal canine hearts in vivo. Six dogs were instrumented to measure regional segment length, ventricular volume (sonomicrometry), and… (More)
We assessed the feasibility of cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) by electric currents applied during the refractory period in patients with heart failure (HF). Extracellular electric currents modulating action potential and calcium transients have been shown to potentiate myocardial contractility in vitro and in animal models of chronic HF. CCM signals… (More)