Itzhak Fischer

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Adult mammalian CNS neurons do not normally regenerate their severed axons. This failure has been attributed to scar tissue and inhibitory molecules at the injury site that block the regenerating axons, a lack of trophic support for the axotomized neurons, and intrinsic neuronal changes that follow axotomy, including cell atrophy and death. We studied(More)
Transplants of fibroblasts genetically modified to express BDNF (Fb/BDNF) have been shown to promote regeneration of rubrospinal axons and recovery of forelimb function when placed acutely into the injured cervical spinal cord of adult rats. Here we investigated whether Fb/BDNF cells could stimulate supraspinal axon regeneration and recovery after chronic(More)
Human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) are multipotential stem cells that can be differentiated into bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. In the experiments here, we found that undifferentiated cultures of hMSCs express some markers characteristic of neural cells such as microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B), neuron-specific tubulin (TuJ-1), neuron-specific(More)
Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) are non-hematopoietic support cells that can be easily derived from bone marrow aspirates. Human MSC are clinically attractive because they can be expanded to large numbers in culture and reintroduced into patients as autografts or allografts. We grafted human MSC derived from aspirates of four different donors into a(More)
It is widely held that tau determines the stability of microtubules in growing axons, although direct evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. Previous studies have shown that the microtubule polymer in the distal axon and growth cone is the most dynamic of growing axons; it turns over more rapidly and is more sensitive to microtubule depolymerizing(More)
The formation of brain circuits requires molecular recognition between functionally related neurons. We report the cloning of a molecule that participates in these interactions. The limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP) is an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily member with 3 Ig domains and a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. In the developing(More)
Ex vivo gene therapy, utilizing modified fibroblasts that deliver BDNF or NT-3 to the acutely injured spinal cord, has been shown to elicit regeneration and recovery of function in the adult rat. Delayed grafting into the injured spinal cord is of great clinical interest as a model for treatment of chronic injury but may pose additional obstacles that are(More)
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), such as tau, modulate neuronal shape and process outgrowth by influencing the stability and organization of microtubules. The dynamic nature of MAP-microtubule interactions in vivo, however, is poorly understood. Here, we have assessed the stability of these interactions by investigating the synthesis and axoplasmic(More)
Microtubule-associated protein 1b (MAP1b) is expressed at especially high levels in neurons actively extending axons, and although it appears to be required for axon growth, the nature of its role is unknown. We reasoned that a detailed description of the localization of MAP1b in growing axons would help define how MAP1b participates in axon growth.(More)
The precise lineage between neural stem cells and mature astrocytes remains poorly defined. To examine astrocyte development, we have characterized glial precursors from neural tissue derived from early embryonic ages. We show that CD44 identifies an astrocyte-restricted precursor cell (ARP) that is committed to generating astrocytes in vitro and in vivo in(More)