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Approximately half of the neurons produced during embryogenesis normally die before adulthood. Although target-derived neurotrophic factors are known to be major determinants of programmed cell death--apoptosis--the molecular mechanisms by which trophic factors interfere with cell death regulation are largely unknown. Overexpression of the bcl-2(More)
There is accumulating evidence that cytokines are involved in the functioning of the brain and the spinal cord. However, it has been controversial whether they exert a neurotoxic or a neuroprotective effect. To address this question in vivo, we have examined the survival of injured motoneurons in a line of transgenic mice that overexpress the soluble form(More)
Exogenous ATP stimulated phospholipase D (PLD), but not sphingomyelinase in rat submandibular gland (SMG) acini. PLD activation was dependent upon extracellular Ca(2+) and did not involve intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization or phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activation. ATP-stimulated PLD was attenuated by inhibition or downregulation of protein(More)
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