Itiro Shirakawa

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INTRODUCTION Although depression is a well-established feature of schizophrenia, it is difficult to measure, because it overlaps with negative symptoms and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Routinely adopted depression scales were not designed to be used in--cases of schizophrenia, and are known to perform poorly when trying to distinguish depression from(More)
This study investigated the frequency of lifetime mental disorders among Korean immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Snowball sampling with multiple focuses was used to recruit Korean immigrants older than 18 years and living in São Paulo. A total of 324 Korean immigrants were selected and their mental status was evaluated using a structured(More)
The adaptive behavior of human beings is usually supported by rapid monitoring of outstanding events in the environment. Some investigators have suggested that a primary attention deficit might trigger symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, researchers have long discussed the relationship between schizophrenia and the schizophrenia-like psychosis of(More)
OBJECTIVE This is a descriptive study to determine smoking prevalence rates in a convenience sample of patients with schizophrenia and to describe clinical/demographic variables for nicotine use in this population. METHOD Patients with schizophrenia were consecutively invited to answer a standard clinical/demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire on(More)
Clinical decision support systems are useful tools for assisting physicians to diagnose complex illnesses. Schizophrenia is a complex, heterogeneous and incapacitating mental disorder that should be detected as early as possible to avoid a most serious outcome. These artificial intelligence systems might be useful in the early detection of schizophrenia(More)
OBJECTIVE Research on clinical reasoning has been useful in developing expert systems. These tools are based on Artificial Intelligence techniques which assist the physician in the diagnosis of complex diseases. The development of these systems is based on a cognitive model extracted through the identification of the clinical reasoning patterns applied by(More)
The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychologically adolescents who use ayahuasca in a religious context. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to adolescents who use ayahuasca. These subjects were compared to a matched control group of adolescents who did not use ayahuasca. The controls were matched with regards to sex, age, and(More)
Depressive episodes are a common and potentially severe occurrence in schizophrenia but are poorly recognised by psychiatrists. Coherent diagnostic criteria are necessary to improve diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. To evaluate the usefulness of the ICD-10 category of post-schizophrenic depression (PSD) and the DSM-IV category of postpsychotic(More)
A case series to study factors related to family expectation regarding schizophrenic patients was conducted in an out-patient setting in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil. Patients diagnosed as presenting schizophrenia by the ICD 9th Edition and having had the disease for more than four years were included in the study. Family Expectation was measured by the(More)