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Recent years have seen intensive progress in measuring protein translation. However, the contributions of coding sequences to the efficiency of the process remain unclear. Here, we identify a universally conserved profile of translation efficiency along mRNAs computed based on adaptation between coding sequences and the tRNA pool. In this profile, the first(More)
The state of the transcriptome reflects a balance between mRNA production and degradation. Yet how these two regulatory arms interact in shaping the kinetics of the transcriptome in response to environmental changes is not known. We subjected yeast to two stresses, one that induces a fast and transient response, and another that triggers a slow enduring(More)
Effective translation of the viral genome during the infection cycle most likely enhances its fitness. In this study, we reveal two different strategies employed by cyanophages, viruses infecting cyanobacteria, to enhance their translation efficiency. Cyanophages of the T7-like Podoviridae family adjust their GC content and codon usage to those of their(More)
The effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) on the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) genes in primary rat astrocytes and C6 glioma cells was examined. The results show that the hormone differentially regulates the cytokine mRNA in the two cell(More)
Received ; accepted – 2 – ABSTRACT Recent experimental results about the formation of molecular hydrogen on astrophysically relevant surfaces under conditions close to those encountered in the interstellar medium are analyzed using rate equations. The parameters of the rate equation model are fitted to temperature-programmed desorption curves obtained in(More)
Recent experimental results on the formation of molecular hydrogen on astrophysi-cally relevant surfaces under conditions similar to those encountered in the interstellar medium provided useful quantitative information about these processes. Rate equation analysis of experiments on olivine and amorphous carbon surfaces provided the activation energy(More)
Single-cell experiments of simple regulatory networks can markedly differ from cell population experiments. Such differences arise from stochastic events in individual cells that are averaged out in cell populations. For instance, while individual cells may show sustained oscillations in the concentrations of some proteins, such oscillations may appear(More)
An analysis of the kinetics of H 2 formation on interstellar dust grains is presented using rate equations. It is shown that semi-empirical expressions that appeared in the literature represent two different physical regimes. In particular, it is shown that the expression given by Hollenbach, Werner & Salpeter [ApJ, 163, 165 (1971)] applies when high flux,(More)
A quantitative comparison between experimental and Monte Carlo simulation results for the epitaxial growth of Cu/Cu͑001͒ in the submonolayer regime is presented. The simulations take into account a complete set of hopping processes whose activation energies are derived from semiempirical calculations using the embedded-atom method. The island separation is(More)