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Two functionally distinct, and potentially competing, brain networks have been recently identified that can be broadly distinguished by their contrasting roles in attention to the external world versus internally directed mentation involving long-term memory. At the core of these two networks are the dorsal attention system and the hippocampal-cortical(More)
Although the parietal lobe is not traditionally thought to support declarative memory, recent event-related fMRI studies of episodic retrieval have consistently revealed a range of memory-related influences on activation in lateral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and precuneus extending into posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortex. This article surveys(More)
Recognition decisions can be based on familiarity, the sense that an item was encountered previously (item memory), and on recollection, the conscious recovery of contextual information surrounding a previous encounter with the item (e.g., source memory). Recognition with recollection is thought to depend on multiple mechanisms, including prefrontal(More)
The hippocampus and adjacent cortical structures in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) contribute to memory through interactions with distributed brain areas. Studies of monkey and rodent anatomy suggest that parallel pathways converge on distinct subregions of the MTL. To explore the cortical areas linked to subregions of the MTL in humans, we examined(More)
Behavior is often governed by abstract rules or instructions for behavior that can be abstracted from one context and applied to another. Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to be important for representing rules, although the contributions of ventrolateral (VLPFC) and dorsolateral (DLPFC) regions remain under-specified. In the present study, event-related(More)
The functional anatomy of syntactic transformations, a major computational operation invoked in sentence processing, was identified through a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation. A grammaticality judgment task was used, presented through a novel hidden-blocks design. Subjects listened to transformational and nontransformational sentences in(More)
Remembering often requires the selection of goal-relevant memories in the face of competition from irrelevant memories. Although there is a cost of selecting target memories over competing memories (increased forgetting of the competing memories), here we report neural evidence for the adaptive benefits of forgetting—namely, reduced demands on cognitive(More)
Declarative memory permits an organism to recognize stimuli that have been previously encountered, discriminating them from those that are novel. One basis for recognition is item memory strength, which may support the perception of stimulus familiarity. Though the medial temporal lobes are known to be critical for declarative memory, at present the neural(More)
Behaviors and brain disorders involve neural circuits that are widely distributed in the brain. The ability to map the functional connectivity of distributed circuits, and to assess how this connectivity evolves over time, will be facilitated by methods for characterizing the network impact of activating a specific subcircuit, cell type, or projection(More)
The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal serves as the basis for human functional MRI (fMRI). Knowledge of the properties of the BOLD signal, such as how linear its response is to sensory stimuli, is essential for the design and interpretation of fMRI experiments. Here, we combined the cell-type and site-specific causal control provided by(More)