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BACKGROUND Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by lightheadedness, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope and associated with postural tachycardia and plasma norepinephrine concentrations that are disproportionately high in relation to sympathetic outflow. We tested the hypothesis that impaired functioning of the norepinephrine transporter(More)
BACKGROUND Water drinking increases blood pressure profoundly in patients with autonomic failure and substantially in older control subjects. The mechanism that mediates this response is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS We studied the effect of drinking tap water on seated blood pressure in 47 patients with severe autonomic failure (28 multiple system(More)
Adenosine potentiates mast cell activation, but the receptor type and molecular mechanisms involved have not been defined. We, therefore, investigated the effects of adenosine on the human mast cell line HMC-1. Both the A2a selective agonist CGS21680 and the A2a/A2b nonselective agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) increased cAMP, but NECA was(More)
Although alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) has been implicated as a major component of the abnormal filaments that form glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in multiple system atrophy (MSA), it is uncertain if GCIs are homogenous and contain full-length alpha-syn. Since this has implications for hypotheses about the pathogenesis of GCIs, we used a novel panel of(More)
Orthostatic intolerance is common when astronauts return to Earth: after brief spaceflight, up to two-thirds are unable to remain standing for 10 min. Previous research suggests that susceptible individuals are unable to increase their systemic vascular resistance and plasma noradrenaline concentrations above pre-flight upright levels. In this study, we(More)
BACKGROUND Approximately 50% of patients with primary autonomic failure have supine hypertension. We investigated whether this supine hypertension could be driven by residual sympathetic activity. METHODS AND RESULTS In patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) or pure autonomic failure (PAF), we studied the effect of oral yohimbine on seated systolic(More)
Adenosine, released in increased amounts by hypoxic tissues, is thought to be an angiogenic factor that links altered cellular metabolism caused by oxygen deprivation to compensatory angiogenesis. Adenosine interacts with 4 subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors, termed A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3). We investigated whether adenosine causes proliferation of(More)
BACKGROUND The postural tachycardia syndrome is a common disorder that is characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and a dramatic increase in heart rate on standing, but that does not involve orthostatic hypotension. Several lines of evidence indicate that this disorder may result from sympathetic denervation of the legs. METHODS We measured(More)