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The orphan receptor APJ and its recently identified endogenous ligand, apelin, exhibit high levels of mRNA expression in the heart. However, the functional importance of apelin in the cardiovascular system is not known. In isolated perfused rat hearts, infusion of apelin (0.01 to 10 nmol/L) induced a dose-dependent positive inotropic effect (EC50:(More)
BACKGROUND Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled apelin receptor, is an important regulator of the cardiovascular homoeostasis. We previously demonstrated that apelin is one of the most potent endogenous stimulators of cardiac contractility; however, its underlying signaling mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study we characterized(More)
Apelin, the ligand for the angiotensin receptor like-1, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation and heart failure. However, it is unknown if apelin has direct effects on cardiomyocyte contractility and electrophysiology. APJ-like immunoreactivity was localized to T-tubules and intercalated disc area in isolated adult rat ventricular(More)
We administered ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing hormone, to isolated perfused rat hearts, coronary arterioles, and cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes to determine its effects on coronary vascular tone, contractility, and natriuretic peptide secretion and gene expression. We also determined cardiac levels of ghrelin and whether the heart is a source(More)
An increase in coronary perfusion pressure leads to increased cardiac contractility, a phenomenon known as the Gregg effect. Exogenous endothelin (ET)-1 exerts a positive inotropic effect; however, the role of endogenous ET-1 in the contractile response to elevated load is unknown. We characterized here the role of ETA and ETB receptors in regulation of(More)
BACKGROUND Adrenomedullin (ADM), a new vasorelaxing and natriuretic peptide, may function as an endogenous regulator of cardiac function, because ADM and its binding sites have been found in the heart. We characterize herein the cardiac effects of ADM as well as the underlying signaling pathways in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS In isolated perfused, paced(More)
The orphan receptor APJ and its recently identified endogenous ligand, apelin, are expressed in the heart. However, their importance in the human cardiovascular system is not known. This study shows that apelin-like immunoreactivity is abundantly present in healthy human heart and plasma. Gel filtration HPLC analysis revealed that atrial and plasma levels(More)
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) plasma concentrations are raised in patients with heart failure. In several experimental models of cardiac overload, however, BNP mRNA and plasma BNP peptide levels are normal, despite the persistent increase in blood pressure and ventricular hypertrophy. In this study, the role of transcriptional mechanisms in the(More)
The zinc finger transcription factor GATA-4 has been implicated as a critical regulator of inducible cardiac gene expression and as a potential mediator of the hypertrophic program. However, the precise intracellular mechanisms that regulate the DNA-binding activity of GATA-4 are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of(More)
OBJECTIVE The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been implicated in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro as well as in vivo; however, it is unknown if activation of NF-kappaB plays a mandatory role in the hypertrophic process. Here we characterize the importance of NF-kappaB signaling in moderate and severe left ventricular (LV)(More)