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The orphan receptor APJ and its recently identified endogenous ligand, apelin, exhibit high levels of mRNA expression in the heart. However, the functional importance of apelin in the cardiovascular system is not known. In isolated perfused rat hearts, infusion of apelin (0.01 to 10 nmol/L) induced a dose-dependent positive inotropic effect (EC50:(More)
BACKGROUND Adrenomedullin (ADM), a new vasorelaxing and natriuretic peptide, may function as an endogenous regulator of cardiac function, because ADM and its binding sites have been found in the heart. We characterize herein the cardiac effects of ADM as well as the underlying signaling pathways in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS In isolated perfused, paced(More)
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) plasma concentrations are raised in patients with heart failure. In several experimental models of cardiac overload, however, BNP mRNA and plasma BNP peptide levels are normal, despite the persistent increase in blood pressure and ventricular hypertrophy. In this study, the role of transcriptional mechanisms in the(More)
Endothelin-1 is involved in mechanical load-induced cardiac growth processes; it also has effects on contractility. The interaction of endothelin-1 and the Frank-Starling response is unknown. The present study aimed to characterize the role of endothelin-1 in the regulation of the Frank-Starling response, one of the major mechanisms regulating cardiac(More)
BACKGROUND Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled apelin receptor, is an important regulator of the cardiovascular homoeostasis. We previously demonstrated that apelin is one of the most potent endogenous stimulators of cardiac contractility; however, its underlying signaling mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study we characterized(More)
BACKGROUND The precise function of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2-R) in the mammalian heart in vivo is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of AT2-R in cardiac pressure overload. METHODS AND RESULTS Rats were infused with vehicle, angiotensin II (Ang II), PD123319 (an AT2-R antagonist), or the combination of Ang II and PD123319 via subcutaneously(More)
BACKGROUND Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) have been shown to regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis in the heart. However, the function of these signaling pathways in the control of cardiac contractility is unclear. Here, we(More)
The mechanisms mediating the activation of cardiac gene expression during pressure overload are not fully understood. We examined whether angiotensin II-induced activation of ventricular gene expression is related to blood pressure and ventricular mass or requires other factors by infusing angiotensin II in sham-operated and adrenalectomized rats. In(More)
OBJECTIVES Recently, extremely high levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) were detected in the pericardial fluid of patients with heart disease; however, the pathophysiological importance of this finding is not known. The present study was designed to characterize ET-1 levels in canine pericardial fluid and to investigate the effects of local high concentrations of(More)
To study the molecular mechanisms for load-induced activation of BNP gene expression, increased wall stress was imposed on isolated isovolumetrically beating adult rat hearts by distension of a fluid filled balloon within the left ventricle. The wall stress for 2 h resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the expression of BNP gene and a 2.0-fold increase of the(More)