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Detection of fragmented closed contours against a cluttered background occurs much beyond the local coherence distance (maximal separation between segments) of nonclosed contours. This implies that the extent of interaction between locally connected detectors is boosted according to the global stimulus structure. We further show that detection of a target(More)
Visual development is thought to be completed at an early age. We suggest that the maturation of the visual brain is not homogeneous: functions with greater need for early availability, such as visuomotor control, mature earlier, and the development of other visual functions may extend well into childhood. We found significant improvement in children(More)
The prevalent view of binocular rivalry holds that it is a competition between the two eyes mediated by reciprocal inhibition among monocular neurons. This view is largely due to the nature of conventional rivalry-inducing stimuli, which are pairs of dissimilar images with coherent patterns within each eye's image. Is it the eye of origin or the coherency(More)
An unsolved problem of biology is the processing of global shape in natural vision. The known processes of early vision are spatially restricted (or local) operations, and little is known about their interactions in organizing the visual image into functionally coherent (or global) objects. Here we introduce a human psychophysical method which allows us to(More)
Membrane vesicles from rat cerebral cortex were prepared and the functional response of the GABAA receptor was followed by monitoring GABA-activated influx of the radiotracer 36Cl- ion. CuCl2 decreased GABA-activated 36Cl- influx into synaptosomal membrane vesicles. The effect of Cu2+ was concentration dependent (5-500 microM CuCl2) and occurred with(More)
We report here on the isolation and characterization of a full-length cDNA clone from alfalfa termed AnnMs2 encoding a 333 amino acid long polypeptide that shows 32-37% sequence identity with both mammalian and plant annexins, and has four tandem repeats. While other plant annexins exhibit a high level of sequence similarity to each other (up to 77%(More)
The network paradigm is increasingly used to describe the topology and dynamics of complex systems. Here, we review the results of the topological analysis of protein structures as molecular networks describing their small-world character, and the role of hubs and central network elements in governing enzyme activity, allosteric regulation, protein motor(More)
Rapid accumulation of toxic products from reactions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with lipids and proteins significantly contributes to the damage of crop plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we have identified a stress-activated alfalfa gene encoding a novel plant NADPH-dependent aldose/aldehyde reductase that also exhibited characteristics of(More)
Despite improved rational drug design and a remarkable progress in genomic, proteomic and high-throughput screening methods, the number of novel, single-target drugs fell much behind expectations during the past decade. Multi-target drugs multiply the number of pharmacologically relevant target molecules by introducing a set of indirect, network-dependent(More)
BACKGROUND Network communities help the functional organization and evolution of complex networks. However, the development of a method, which is both fast and accurate, provides modular overlaps and partitions of a heterogeneous network, has proven to be rather difficult. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Here we introduce the novel concept of ModuLand, an(More)