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BACKGROUND After the discovery of somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain (exons 18-24) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) correlating with responses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib and erlotinib, there has been increasing interest in utilizing this molecular marker for treatment(More)
BACKGROUND We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare treatment outcomes for human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2-positive breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab. METHODS We identified randomized clinical trials comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab in patients(More)
BACKGROUND Adults with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis are at increased risk for ipsilateral carotid territory ischemic stroke. PURPOSE To examine comparative evidence on management strategies for asymptomatic carotid stenosis and the incidence of ipsilateral stroke with medical therapy alone. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of(More)
Obtaining good probability estimates is imperative for many applications. The increased uncertainty and typically asymmetric costs surrounding rare events increases this need. Experts (and classification systems) often rely on probabilities to inform decisions. However, we demonstrate that class probability estimates attained via supervised learning in(More)
BACKGROUND Because of its long-term effectiveness in clinical practice, methotrexate (MTX) is currently the preferred disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) for patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RRA). However, many patients do not experience remission and continue to have signs and symptoms of active disease while receiving a maximally(More)
BACKGROUND The rate of adverse clinical outcomes among patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis receiving medical therapy alone can be used to guide clinical decision-making and to inform future research. We aimed to investigate temporal changes in the incidence rate of clinical outcomes among patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis receiving medical(More)
BACKGROUND Somatic mutations of the k-RAS oncogene have been assessed as a mechanism of de-novo resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibition in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The aim of this systematic review(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to characterize common EGFR molecular aberrations as potential predictive biomarkers for response to monotherapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We systematically identified articles investigating EGFR status [somatic mutational(More)
A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to compare the frequency of clinically significant outcomes between JAK2 V617F positive and wild type patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET). JAK2 V617F positivity in patients with ET was associated with a clear increase in the odds of thrombosis [OR=1.83 (95% CI, 1.32-2.53), p<0.0001], and much(More)
BACKGROUND KRAS mutations have been extensively investigated as predictive biomarkers for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab. PURPOSE To summarize whether KRAS mutation status modifies effects of anti-EGFR-based treatments for patients with advanced colorectal(More)