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Obtaining good probability estimates is imperative for many applications. The increased uncertainty and typically asymmetric costs surrounding rare events increases this need. Experts (and classification systems) often rely on probabilities to inform decisions. However, we demonstrate that class probability estimates attained via supervised learning in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Studies have assessed PET by using various tracers to diagnose disease recurrence in patients with previously treated glioma; however, the accuracy of these methods, particularly compared with alternative imaging modalities, remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively synthesize the diagnostic accuracy of PET and(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to characterize common EGFR molecular aberrations as potential predictive biomarkers for response to monotherapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We systematically identified articles investigating EGFR status [somatic mutational(More)
Systematic reviews are being increasingly used to inform all levels of healthcare, from bedside decisions to policy-making. Since they are designed to minimize bias and subjectivity, they are a preferred option to assess the comparative effectiveness and safety of healthcare interventions. However, producing systematic reviews and keeping them up-to-date is(More)
Proposed molecular classifiers may be overfit to idiosyncrasies of noisy genomic and proteomic data. Cross-validation methods are often used to obtain estimates of classification accuracy, but both simulations and case studies suggest that, when inappropriate methods are used, bias may ensue. Bias can be bypassed and generalizability can be tested by(More)
Obtaining good probability estimates is imperative for many applications. The increased uncertainty and typically asymmetric costs surrounding rare events increase this need. Experts (and classification systems) often rely on probabilities to inform decisions. However, we demonstrate that class probability estimates obtained via supervised learning in(More)
AIMS Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions because randomization protects from biases inherent in observational studies. Propensity score (PS) methods, proposed as a potential solution to confounding of the treatment-outcome association, are widely used in observational studies of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Patients discovered to have a patent foramen ovale in the setting of a cryptogenic stroke may be treated with percutaneous closure, antiplatelet therapy, or anticoagulants. A recent randomized trial (CLOSURE I) did not detect any benefit of closure over medical treatment alone; the optimal medical therapy is also unknown. We(More)
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Although randomized evidence demonstrates that imatinib (a commercially available TKI) prolongs event-free survival in patients with CML, some patients develop imatinib intolerance or resistance. In addition, imatinib is less effective in patients who have(More)
BACKGROUND The TP53 rs1042522 polymorphism (c.215C>G, Arg72Pro) has been extensively investigated as a potential risk factor for colorectal cancer, but the results have thus far been inconclusive. METHODS We searched multiple electronic databases to identify studies investigating the association between the Arg72Pro polymorphism and colorectal cancer.(More)