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Recent reports suggest dyslipidemia impairs dendritic cell (DC) function and adaptive immunity. This study aimed to characterize the effect of hypercholesterolemia on antigen-presenting cell function of DCs and DC-dependent CD4(+) T-cell responses. DCs incubated in vitro with acetylated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with or without an acyl-coenzyme(More)
BACKGROUND T-cell-mediated immunity contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but little is known about how these responses are regulated. We explored the influence of the inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS) on atherosclerosis and associated immune responses. METHODS AND RESULTS Bone marrow chimeras were generated by transplanting(More)
BACKGROUND PD-L1 and PD-L2 are ligands for the inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1), which is an important regulator of immune responses. PD-L1 is induced on cardiac endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions, but little is known about its role in regulating immune injury in the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated(More)
Evidence from many human and rodent studies has established that T lymphocytes enhance inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques and contribute to lesion progression and remodeling. Recent work also indicates that regulatory T cells are important in limiting proatherogenic T-cell responses. Given the important role of T cells in atherosclerosis, there is a(More)
Acute myocarditis is one of the most challenging diseases to diagnose and treat in cardiology. The true incidence of the disease is unknown. Viral infection is the most common etiology. Modern techniques have improved the ability to diagnose specific viral pathogens in the myocardium. Currently, parvovirus B19 and adenoviruses are most frequently identified(More)
Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication that can develop after bone marrow transplantation. It involves an immune-mediated attack by transplanted donor lymphocytes, and often results in inflammatory damage of host target organs. Immune hyporesponsiveness induced by oral antigen administration has been recently shown to prevent the(More)
BACKGROUND Prior studies in heart failure (HF) have used the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration Group (CKD-EPI) equation provides a more-accurate eGFR than the MDRD when compared against the radionuclide gold standard. The(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with heart failure (HF) have a poor prognosis. The proportion of patients with HF and preserved left ventricular function (LVF) is increasing. Long term prognosis of HF with preserved LVF may not be so benign. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the long term clinical outcome of patients with HF and preserved LVF and predictors of outcome. (More)
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