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AIMS Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent, global phenomenon. The prevalence in heart failure (HF) patients and its effect on outcome are less clear. We evaluated vitamin D levels and vitamin D supplementation in patients with HF and its effect on mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were evaluated in HF patients from(More)
Recent reports suggest dyslipidemia impairs dendritic cell (DC) function and adaptive immunity. This study aimed to characterize the effect of hypercholesterolemia on antigen-presenting cell function of DCs and DC-dependent CD4(+) T-cell responses. DCs incubated in vitro with acetylated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with or without an acyl-coenzyme(More)
BACKGROUND T-cell-mediated immunity contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but little is known about how these responses are regulated. We explored the influence of the inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS) on atherosclerosis and associated immune responses. METHODS AND RESULTS Bone marrow chimeras were generated by transplanting(More)
Oral tolerance is the induction of immunological hyporesponsiveness towards orally administered antigens. Tolerance initiation involves induction of anti-inflammatory (Th2) lymphocytes, with downregulation of pro-inflammatory (Th1) lymphocytes. The liver was previously shown to play a critical role in oral tolerance induction. The aim of the present study(More)
Adipose tissue (AT) can accumulate macrophages and secrete several inflammatory mediators. Despite its pivotal role in the progression of chronic inflammatory processes such as atherosclerosis, the adaptive role of immunity in obesity remains poorly explored. Visceral AT of diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice had higher numbers of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a non-cytopathic virus, and the hepatocellular injury that occurs as a consequence of HBV infection is mediated by the host antiviral immune response. Subjects with natural tolerance to HBV have minimal or no liver injury despite chronic viremia. We have shown that immune tolerance towards viruses can be induced by oral(More)
We report a case of chronic mesenteric ischemia that caused abdominal angina and weight loss in an 80-year-old woman. A mesenteric angiogram revealed total occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and 90% stenosis of the celiac and inferior mesenteric arteries. Balloon angioplasty of the celiac artery failed because of elastic recoil. A 15-mm(More)
OBJECTIVE Uric acid (UA) levels are frequently increased in patients with heart failure (HF), and may be an indicator of a poor prognosis and an innovative target for treatment. We evaluated the effect of UA and allopurinol use on clinical outcome in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS We evaluated patients with a diagnosis of HF at a Health Maintenance(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with heart failure (HF) have a poor prognosis. The proportion of patients with HF and preserved left ventricular function (LVF) is increasing. Long term prognosis of HF with preserved LVF may not be so benign. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the long term clinical outcome of patients with HF and preserved LVF and predictors of outcome. (More)
BACKGROUND PD-L1 and PD-L2 are ligands for the inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1), which is an important regulator of immune responses. PD-L1 is induced on cardiac endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions, but little is known about its role in regulating immune injury in the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated(More)