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Higher cognitive inhibitory and attention functions have been shown to develop throughout adolescence, presumably concurrent with anatomical brain maturational changes. The relatively scarce developmental functional imaging literature on cognitive control, however, has been inconsistent with respect to the neurofunctional substrates of this cognitive(More)
BACKGROUND Inhibitory dysfunction is a key behavioral and cognitive phenotype of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Both disorders show neuropsychological deficits and fronto-striatal dysfunction during tasks of motor response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. This study investigates differences and(More)
BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder that appears to be underdiagnosed and undertreated, despite the evidence for effective treatments. There are variable estimates of OCD prevalence in the under-16s and published rates give little indication of age trends. AIMS To establish the prevalence and associates of OCD in young people aged(More)
Recent progress in developmental neurobiology and neuroimaging can be drawn together to provide new insight into the links between genetically specified processes of embryonic brain development and adult human brain structure and function. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to show that individuals with aniridia and deficits in executive and social(More)
The 1999 British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey, a nationwide epidemiological study of rates of psychiatric disorder in children aged 5 to 15 years, provided the opportunity to investigate the mental health of children with epilepsy. These children and their families experience disability specifically because of additional emotional, behavioural,(More)
Hindbrain segments, rhombomeres, define distinct cellular and molecular domains which furnish the ground plan for important aspects of neural and cranial development. In this study, further evidence is presented that the interfaces between rhombomeres, rhombomere boundaries, contain both cells and extracellular matrix with specialised characteristics. Cells(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in childhood and adolescence is an impairing condition, associated with a specific set of distressing symptoms incorporating repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and distressing, time-consuming rituals (compulsions). This review considers current knowledge of causes and mechanisms underlying OCD, as well as(More)
BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be related to a dysfunction in frontostriatal pathways mediating inhibitory control. However, no functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study has tested this in children. AIMS To test whether adolescents with OCD in partial remission would show abnormal frontostriatal brain activation during tasks(More)
Neural crest cells originate at three discontinuous levels along the rostrocaudal axis of the chick rhombencephalon, centred on rhombomeres 1 and 2, 4 and 6, respectively. These are separated by the odd-numbered rhombomeres r3 and r5 which are depleted of migratory neural crest cells. Here we show elevated levels of apoptosis in the dorsal midline of r3 and(More)
The chick embryo hindbrain is a segmented region of the CNS characterised by repeated blocks of neuroepithelial cells, known as rhombomeres. Individual rhombomeres are polyclonal compartments, defined both by cell lineage restriction and by the restricted expression of development control genes, that later acquire specific patterns of neuronal(More)