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Although osteoclasts are derived from hematopoietic cells, the exact identity of their precursors and the mechanism for their recruitment onto bone surfaces remain unclear. We wished to study their differentiation in the fetal rat calvaria and to locate its source of osteoclast precursor cells. Osteoclasts were detected by neutral red staining or(More)
Although osteoporosis is usually associated with women, 1 in 12 men in the UK have the disease, and a third of these cases are idiopathic. Estrogen is now known to be associated with bone loss in older men, but we found, previously, that levels of this hormone were normal in younger cases of male idiopathic osteoporosis (MIO) in the age range 33-61 years.(More)
Falling estrogen levels affect the female skeleton profoundly. Following menopause, estrogen lack is a major cause of osteoporosis. The site of estrogen action in human bone, however, is unclear, but responsive cells must express the estrogen receptor (ER). One obstacle to localizing these cells is that mRNA for ER is expressed in low copy number. Hence,(More)
The effects of the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), are mediated via the vitamin D receptor (VDR). 1,25D is known to have profound effects on bone resorption, but proof that the human osteoclast expresses VDR in vivo is absent. Receptors have been demonstrated in osteoblasts, and it has been generally accepted that the(More)
The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is thought to be involved in bone homeostasis. A number of bone resorbing agents have been shown to induce the release of IL-6 from bone. We wished to determine whether prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which is a mediator of bone resorption, can elicit the production of IL-6. IL-6 was measured by the proliferative(More)
Bone metastases in breast cancer may be osteolytic, osteosclerotic, or a mixture of the two. Although stimulation of bone resorption by breast cancer cells has attracted some interest, the formation of osteosclerotic secondary tumours and the influence of human mammary carcinoma cells on osteoblasts (bone forming cells), both important in understanding(More)
Acid phosphatase activity is prominent in osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells) and has been implicated in the process of bone resorption, although its precise role is not understood. To study the distribution and activity of this enzyme, a quantitative cytochemical method has been developed using undecalcified fresh frozen sections of foetal rat calvariae.(More)
BACKGROUND Personal and Professional Development portfolios have recently been introduced into phase 1 (years 1 and 2) of the undergraduate medical curriculum in the School of Medicine in Manchester. As the large student numbers at Manchester precluded the use of an individual mentoring system, students are supported in their portfolio development by tutor(More)
Formative feedback can provide information about how learners develop their competences in a knowledge domain. This information can determine learners' progress and is essential in suggesting remedial actions which overcome gaps in knowledge. Finding this information, however, is a time consuming task. This paper elaborates the theoretical background of(More)