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New brain synapses form when a postsynaptic structure, the dendritic spine, interacts with a presynaptic terminal. Brain synapses and dendritic spines, membrane-rich structures, are depleted in Alzheimer's disease, as are some circulating compounds needed for synthesizing phosphatides, the major constituents of synaptic membranes. Animals given three of(More)
This study examined the possibility that membrane phospholipids might be a source of choline used for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis. Slices of rat striatum or cerebellum were superfused with a choline-free or choline-containing (10, 20 or 40 microM) physiological solution with eserine, for alternating 20 min periods of rest or electrical stimulation.(More)
The synthesis of brain phosphatidylcholine may utilize three circulating precursors: choline; a pyrimidine (e.g., uridine, converted via UTP to brain CTP); and a PUFA (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid); phosphatidylethanolamine may utilize two of these, a pyrimidine and a PUFA. We observe that consuming these precursors can substantially increase membrane(More)
Phentermine was shown in the 1970s to inhibit the metabolism of serotonin by monoamine oxidase (MAO), but never was labeled as an MAO inhibitor; hence, it was widely used in combination with fenfluramine, and continues to be used, in violation of their labels, with other serotonin uptake blockers. We examined the effects of phentermine and several other(More)
Twelve mildly hypertensive but otherwise normal fasting subjects received each of four treatments in random order: CDP-choline (citicoline; 500, 2000, and 4000 mg) or a placebo orally at 8:00 a.m. on four different treatment days. Eleven plasma samples from each subject, obtained just prior to treatment (8:00 a.m.) and 1-12 hr thereafter, were assayed for(More)
Animals received either haloperidol (2 mg/kg) or probenecid (200 mg/kg) in conjunction with tyrosine (100 mg/kg) or its diluent. Striatal homovanillic acid levels increased in probenecid-treated animals to the same range whether they were given tyrosine or not. In haloperidol-treated animals the levels of homovanillic acid were significantly elevated in(More)
Twenty-four hours after rats receive choline chloride (20 mmol/kg, by stomach tube) the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase [tyrosine 3-monooxygenase; L-tyrosine, tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating), EC] increases by 31% within adrenomedullary chromaffin cells. This treatment also causes major elevations in the levels of(More)
Administering uridine-5'-monophosphate (UMP) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increases synaptic membranes (as characterized by pre- and post-synaptic proteins) and dendritic spines in rodents. We examined their effects on rotational behavior and dopaminergic markers in rats with partial unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced striatal lesions. Rats(More)
Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) choline (50–150 μg) increased blood pressure and decreased heart rate in spinal cord transected, hypotensive rats. Choline administered intraperitoneally (60 mg/kg), also, increased blood pressure, but to a lesser extent. The pressor response to i.c.v. choline was associated with an increase in plasma vasopressin.(More)
We examined the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, and of glutamate itself, on acetylcholine (ACh) release from superfused rat striatal slices. In a Mg(++)-free medium, NMDA (32-1000 microM) as well as glutamate (1 mM) increased basal ACh release by 35 to 100% (all indicated differences, P less than .05), without altering tissue(More)