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This study examined the possibility that membrane phospholipids might be a source of choline used for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis. Slices of rat striatum or cerebellum were superfused with a choline-free or choline-containing (10, 20 or 40 microM) physiological solution with eserine, for alternating 20 min periods of rest or electrical stimulation.(More)
Twelve mildly hypertensive but otherwise normal fasting subjects received each of four treatments in random order: CDP-choline (citicoline; 500, 2000, and 4000 mg) or a placebo orally at 8:00 a.m. on four different treatment days. Eleven plasma samples from each subject, obtained just prior to treatment (8:00 a.m.) and 1-12 hr thereafter, were assayed for(More)
The synthesis of brain phosphatidylcholine may utilize three circulating precursors: choline; a pyrimidine (e.g., uridine, converted via UTP to brain CTP); and a PUFA (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid); phosphatidylethanolamine may utilize two of these, a pyrimidine and a PUFA. We observe that consuming these precursors can substantially increase membrane(More)
New brain synapses form when a postsynaptic structure, the dendritic spine, interacts with a presynaptic terminal. Brain synapses and dendritic spines, membrane-rich structures, are depleted in Alzheimer's disease, as are some circulating compounds needed for synthesizing phosphatides, the major constituents of synaptic membranes. Animals given three of(More)
Although cognitive performance in humans and experimental animals can be improved by administering omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the neurochemical mechanisms underlying this effect remain uncertain. In general, nutrients or drugs that modify brain function or behavior do so by affecting synaptic transmission, usually by changing the(More)
AIMS Treatments that increase acetylcholine release from brain slices decrease the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine by, and its levels in, the slices. We examined whether adding cytidine or uridine to the slice medium, which increases the utilization of choline to form phospholipids, also decreases acetylcholine levels and release. METHODS We incubated(More)
Phentermine was shown in the 1970s to inhibit the metabolism of serotonin by monoamine oxidase (MAO), but never was labeled as an MAO inhibitor; hence, it was widely used in combination with fenfluramine, and continues to be used, in violation of their labels, with other serotonin uptake blockers. We examined the effects of phentermine and several other(More)
OBJECTIVE The loss of cortical and hippocampal synapses is a universal hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, and probably underlies its effects on cognition. Synapses are formed from the interaction of neurites projecting from "presynaptic" neurons with dendritic spines projecting from "postsynaptic" neurons. Both of these structures are vulnerable to the toxic(More)
Twenty-four hours after rats receive choline chloride (20 mmol/kg, by stomach tube) the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase [tyrosine 3-monooxygenase; L-tyrosine, tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating), EC] increases by 31% within adrenomedullary chromaffin cells. This treatment also causes major elevations in the levels of(More)
OBJECTIVE Topical cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) has been shown to improve the functional recovery and promote the nerve regeneration of injured sciatic nerves in rats. The aims of this study were to test whether CDP-choline was effective at promoting nerve healing when the surgery to repair an injury was delayed and to determine whether the(More)