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OBJECTIVES This study examined the relative merits of digoxin, carvedilol, and their combination for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND In patients with AF and HF, both digoxin and beta-blockers reduce the ventricular rate, and both may improve symptoms, but only beta-blockers have been shown to(More)
An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals. Since the small-scale movements and contacts between people are generally not recorded, available data regarding infectious disease are often aggregations in space and time, yielding small-area counts of the number infected during successive, regular time(More)
BACKGROUND Seasonal patterns in mortality have been recognized for many years. This study assesses seasonal variation in mortality in Scotland between 1981 and 1993 and considers its association with socioeconomic status and outdoor temperature. METHODS Lagged Poisson regression analysis of numbers of deaths and average weekly temperature with adjustment(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate early influences of postnatal growth on blood pressure (BP) in healthy, British-born South Asian and European origin infants. We tested the hypotheses that South Asian infants would be smaller in all body dimensions (length and weight) with higher relative truncal skinfold thickness at birth, and that(More)
Background: Over recent years increased emphasis has been given to performance monitoring of NHS hospitals, including overall number of hospital readmissions, which however are often sub-optimally adjusted for case-mix. We therefore conducted a study to examine the effect of various patient and disease factors on the risk of emergency medical readmission.
AIMS Heart rate variability (HRV) parameters can be used to assess autonomic function and to predict outcome, but this has been done exclusively in patients with sinus rhythm. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the commonest sustained arrhythmia and is particularly prevalent in heart failure. We have developed a simple index to assess autonomic function in(More)
Area-based interventions offer the potential to increase physical activity for many sedentary people in countries such as the UK. Evidence on the effect of individual and area/neighbourhood influences on physical activity is in its infancy, and despite its value to policy makers a population focus is rarely used. Data from a population-based health and(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To assess the potential number of lives saved associated with the full implementation of aspects of the National Service Framework (NSF) for coronary heart disease (CHD) in England using recently developed population impact measures. DESIGN Modelling study. SETTING Primary care. DATA SOURCES Published data on prevalence of acute(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To establish the prevalence of problem drug use in the 10 local authorities within the Metropolitan County of Greater Manchester between April 2000 and March 2001. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Problem drug users aged 16-54 resident within Greater Manchester who attended community based statutory drug treatment agencies, were in contact with(More)
CONTEXT Patients with acromegaly have increased morbidity and mortality, predominantly from cardiovascular disease. Hypertension and diabetes are more prevalent, and both cause small vessel remodeling and endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE To understand the structure and function of small arteries in acromegaly, sc blood vessels from gluteal fat biopsies(More)