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Recent research has found that many novice programmers often hold non-viable mental models of basic programming concepts such as assignment and object reference, which can limit their potential to develop programming skills. This paper proposes a constructivist-based teaching model that integrates cognitive conflict and program visualisation with the aim of(More)
Recent research has found that many novice programmers often hold non-viable mental models of basic programming concepts which can limit their potential to develop appropriate programming skills. Previous work by the authors suggests that a teaching model that integrates cognitive conflict and program visualisation can help novices formulate appropriate(More)
A retrospective study of tooth loss in 211 patients who were treated for periodontal disease in private practice and maintained for 15 to 34 years on 3- to 6-month recall schedules is reported. The average age of the patients was 42 years, and the average length of time in maintenance was 22 years. On the basis of response to therapy, the patients were(More)
The study was done to determine the incidence and distribution of root fusion in 1340 maxillary and mandibular molars in 170 patients. A second objective was to determine whether root fusion of molars is sex-linked. A substantial percentage, 29% of all molars, had fused roots. Root fusion was found more frequently in maxillary than mandibular molars, 35% to(More)
This is a sequel to a previous study that showed that many molars with furcation involvement (F.I.) can survive in a state of health and can function efficiently and without pain for many years. This finding is at variance with the views of others who believe that the prognosis for teeth with F.I. is unfavorable. The conclusions of the present study are:(More)