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Trichomonas vaginalis remains the most common sexually transmitted parasite in the world and is considered a major risk factor in the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. A PCR technique using primers targeting a specific region of the 18S rRNA gene of T. vaginalis was developed. The PCR test was standardized using 15 reference strains, giving(More)
Many viral infections, including HIV, exhibit sex-based pathogenic differences. However, few studies have examined vaccine-related sex differences. We compared immunogenicity and protective efficacy of monomeric SIV gp120 with oligomeric SIV gp140 in a pre-clinical rhesus macaque study and explored a subsequent sex bias in vaccine outcome. Each immunization(More)
A key goal for HIV-1 envelope immunogen design is the induction of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). As AIDS vaccine recipients will not be exposed to strains exactly matching any immunogens due to multiple HIV-1 quasispecies circulating in the human population worldwide, heterologous SHIV challenges are essential for realistic vaccine efficacy(More)
BACKGROUND The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection. METHODOLOGY Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from untreated(More)
Measurement of Ag-specific T follicular helper (TFH) cell activity in rhesus macaques has not previously been reported. Given that rhesus macaques are the animal model of choice for evaluating protective efficacy of HIV/SIV vaccine candidates and that TFH cells play a pivotal role in aiding B cell maturation, quantifying vaccine induction of(More)
Control of infectious disease may be accomplished by successful vaccination or by complex immunologic and genetic factors favoring Ag-specific multicellular immune responses. Using a rhesus macaque model, we evaluated Ag-specific T cell-dependent NK cell immune responses in SIV-infected macaques, designated "controlling" or "noncontrolling" based on(More)
BACKGROUND Cachexia is a hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis and is associated with poor prognosis. A better understanding of the mechanisms behind such weight loss could reveal targets for therapeutic intervention. The role of appetite-regulatory hormones in tuberculosis is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS 41 subjects with newly-diagnosed pulmonary TB(More)
The presence of two oncosphere antigens (OAs) of 22.5 and 31.3 kD in whole and excretory/secretory (ES) OA preparations of both Taenia solium and T. saginata or in antigen preparations from T. solium metacestodes or immature tapeworms was assessed. This included an evaluation of whether antibodies to other cestodes cross-reacted to these OAs. The OAs were(More)
To target the HIV CD4i envelope epitope, we primed rhesus macaques with replicating Ad-rhFLSC (HIV-1BaLgp120 linked to macaque CD4 D1 and D2), with or without Ad-SIVgag and Ad-SIVnef. Macaques were boosted with rhFLSC protein. Memory T-cells in PBMC, bronchoalveolar lavage and rectal tissue, antibodies with neutralizing and ADCC activity, and Env-specific(More)
Combinatorial HIV/SIV vaccine approaches targeting multiple arms of the immune system might improve protective efficacy. We compared SIV-specific humoral immunity induced in rhesus macaques by five vaccine regimens. Systemic regimens included ALVAC-SIVenv priming and Env boosting (ALVAC/Env); DNA immunization; and DNA plus Env co-immunization (DNA&Env).(More)