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Human hearing differs from that of chimpanzees and most other anthropoids in maintaining a relatively high sensitivity from 2 kHz up to 4 kHz, a region that contains relevant acoustic information in spoken language. Knowledge of the auditory capacities in human fossil ancestors could greatly enhance the understanding of when this human pattern emerged(More)
Partial sequences of the G protein gene of 33 isolates from antigenic group B of human respiratory syncytial virus were determined. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the evolutionary pattern of group B viruses is similar to that previously described for isolates of antigenic group A, including worldwide distribution of related viruses and co-circulation(More)
This study describes and compares two hyoid bones from the middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain). The Atapuerca SH hyoids are humanlike in both their morphology and dimensions, and they clearly differ from the hyoid bones of chimpanzees and Australopithecus afarensis. Their comparison with the Neandertal(More)
The genetic and antigenic variability of the G glycoproteins from 76 human respiratory syncytial (RS) viruses (subgroup A) isolated during six consecutive epidemics in either Montevideo, Uruguay, or Madrid, Spain, have been analyzed. Genetic diversity was evaluated for all viruses by the RNase A mismatch cleavage method and for selected strains by dideoxy(More)
A set of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the attachment (G) glycoprotein of a recently isolated strain of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is described. Antibody reactivity with a series of HRSV isolates belonging to antigenic groups A and B identified three epitope categories: (i) strain-specific or variable epitopes that were present in(More)
Human fossil remains recovered from the TD6 level (Aurora stratum) of the lower Pleistocene cave site of Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain, exhibit a unique combination of cranial, mandibular, and dental traits and are suggested as a new species of Homo-H. antecessor sp. nov. The fully modern midfacial morphology of the fossils antedates other(More)
Ca2+-regulated exocytosis, previously believed to be restricted to specialized cells, was recently recognized as a ubiquitous process. In mammalian fibroblasts and epithelial cells, exocytic vesicles mobilized by Ca2+ were identified as lysosomes. Here we show that elevation in intracellular cAMP potentiates Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of lysosomes in normal(More)
Binding of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) to cultured cells was measured by flow cytometry. Using this assay and influenza virus as a control virus with a well-characterized receptor, a systematic search of cell surface molecules that might be implicated in HRSV binding was carried out. Treatment of cells with different enzymes or with other(More)
cDNA microarray technology was applied to time course analysis of differentially expressed genes in A549 cells following human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infection. Both up- and down-regulation of cellular genes were observed in a time-dependent manner. However, gene up-regulation prevailed over gene down-regulation. Virus infectivity was required(More)