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In Pakistan more than 10 million people are living with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), with high morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the prevalence, genotypes and factors associated with HCV infection in the Pakistani population. A literature search was performed by using the keywords; HCV prevalence, genotypes and risk factors in a Pakistani(More)
Activation of cellular kinases and transcription factors mediates the early phase of the cellular response to chemically or biologically induced stress. In the present study we investigated the oxidant/antioxidant balance in Huh-7 cells expressing the HCV (hepatitis C virus) subgenomic replicon, and observed a 5-fold increase in oxidative stress during HCV(More)
Aeromonas punctata is the causative agent of septicemia, diarrhea, wound infections, meningitis, peritonitis, and infections of the joints, bones and eyes. Bacteriophages are often considered alternative agents for controlling bacterial infection and contamination. In this study, we described the isolation and preliminary characterization of bacteriophage(More)
Citrobacter freundii is a worldwide emerging nosocomial pathogen with escalating incidence of multidrug resistance. Citrobacter freundii exists in natural environment, especially in health care settings and is difficult to eradicate. Phage therapy is considered as an alternative way of controlling bacterial infections and contaminations. In this study, we(More)
Among the hepatotropic viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered to be the leading cause of liver disease in humans, affecting approximately 2% of the world population. HCV-encoded nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is a 56-58-kDa phosphoprotein, which is produced from the processing of viral polyprotein. The potential mechanism(s) by which NS5A is able(More)
Adiponectin receptors play a key role in steatosis and inflammation; however, very little is known about regulation of adiponectin receptors in liver. Here, we examined the effects of palmitate loading, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the hypolipidemic agent fenofibrate on adiponectin receptor R2 (AdipoR2) levels and AMP-activated protein kinase(More)
Bile acids are efficiently removed from sinusoidal blood by a number of transporters including the Na+-taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp). Na+-dependent bile salt uptake, as well as Ntcp, are expressed twofold higher in male compared with female rat livers. Also, estrogen administration to male rats decreases Ntcp expression. The aims of this(More)
Biliary excretion is the rate-limiting step in transfer of bilirubin, other organic anions, and xenobiotics across the liver. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is the major transporter for conjugated endo- and xenobiotic-conjugated compounds into bile. Hormones regulate bilirubin and xenobiotic secretion into bile, which have dimorphic(More)
The disproportionate imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and body’s ability to detoxify the reactive intermediates is referred to as oxidative stress. Several biological processes as well as infectious agents, physiological or environmental stress, and perturbed antioxidant response can promote oxidative stress. Oxidative(More)
The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is a major endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that can form stable associations with a variety of proteins retained in the ER because of underglycosylation or other conformational changes. In this study, we provide evidence at the transcriptional level that a conformationally abnormal protein, an altered herpes(More)