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The disproportionate imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and body’s ability to detoxify the reactive intermediates is referred to as oxidative stress. Several biological processes as well as infectious agents, physiological or environmental stress, and perturbed antioxidant response can promote oxidative stress. Oxidative(More)
Aeromonas punctata is the causative agent of septicemia, diarrhea, wound infections, meningitis, peritonitis, and infections of the joints, bones and eyes. Bacteriophages are often considered alternative agents for controlling bacterial infection and contamination. In this study, we described the isolation and preliminary characterization of bacteriophage(More)
Bile acids are efficiently removed from sinusoidal blood by a number of transporters including the Na+-taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp). Na+-dependent bile salt uptake, as well as Ntcp, are expressed twofold higher in male compared with female rat livers. Also, estrogen administration to male rats decreases Ntcp expression. The aims of this(More)
Recently it has been recognized that bacteriophages, the natural predators of bacteria can be used efficiently in modern biotechnology. They have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics for many antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. Phages can be used as biocontrol agents in agriculture and petroleum industry. Moreover phages are used as vehicles for(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections play an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV X protein (HBx) is a multifunctional protein that can modulate various cellular processes and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HCC. HBx is known to interact with DNA helicase components of TFIIH, a basal transcriptional(More)
BACKGROUND The envelope glycoprotein E2 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains several hypervariable regions. Interestingly, 2 regions of intragenotypic hypervariability within E2 have been described as being specific to HCV subtype 3a. Based on their amino acid position in E2, they were named HVR495 and HVR575. Here, we further investigated these regions in(More)
Diabetes and obesity are associated with activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress; however a direct link between ER stress and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Here we show that ER stress triggers a significant increase in expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPβ) and phosphorylated CREB together with reduced(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem in developing countries including Pakistan. Chronic HCV infection results in progressive liver disease including fibrosis, cirrhosis, insulin resistance and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ionotrophic purinergic (P2X) receptors are identified to involve in a spectrum of physiological and(More)
Obesity today stands at the intersection between inflammation and metabolic disorders causing an aberration of immune activity, and resulting in increased risk for diabetes, atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and pulmonary inflammation to name a few. Increases in mortality and morbidity in obesity related inflammation have initiated studies to explore different(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the main cause of severe liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. In Pakistan most of HCV positive patients have history of facial/armpit shaving from barbers. 79% of barbers are rubbing Potash Alum stone on facial shaving cuts. Dark blood spots are analyzed on Potash Alum stones(More)