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In this study, air traffic control instructors controlled simulated traffic while three techniques for determining situation awareness (SA) were implemented. SA was assessed using a self-report measure (SART); a query method that removed information on the plan-view display (SAGAT); a query technique that did not have a memory component (SPAM); and the(More)
Basal ganglia structures comprise a portion of the neural circuitry that is hypothesized to coordinate the selection and suppression of competing responses. Parkinson's disease (PD) may produce a dysfunction in these structures that alters this capacity, making it difficult for patients with PD to suppress interference arising from the automatic activation(More)
When administered soon before or after training, glucose facilitates memory in rodents and in several populations of humans, including healthy elderly people. Thus, glucose appears to enhance memory formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By assessing the effects of glucose at the time of memory tests, the present experiment examined the role of(More)
Studies that used conflict paradigms such as the Eriksen Flanker task show that many individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have pronounced difficulty resolving the conflict that arises from the simultaneous activation of mutually exclusive responses. This finding fits well with contemporary views that postulate a key role for the basal ganglia in action(More)
Individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) show primary deficits in memory and are at increased risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). In light of recent evidence that executive cognitive deficits are common in AD and may be detectable in individuals diagnosed with MCI, we extend these findings to the investigation of response(More)
Spatial learning abilities in younger adults and in healthy elderly adults were examined in 2 tasks. In the first task, participants were tested for their ability to recall relevant route information as well as to recognize and to order temporally landmark information observed along the route. Older participants had relatively greater difficulty retracing(More)
Attempts to attenuate the severe memory deficits in patients with SDAT have been largely unsuccessful, particularly in patients at advanced stages of the disease. Recent evidence indicates that glucose administration enhances memory in generally healthy aged rodents and humans. The present experiment demonstrates that glucose administration improves memory(More)
The present experiment examined anterograde and retrograde enhancement of memory storage by glucose in elderly humans. Glucose (50 g) or saccharin was administered shortly before or immediately after acquisition of a narrative prose passage. Recall was tested 24 h later. Glucose administration before or after presentation of the material to be learned(More)
Glucose enhances memory in a variety of individuals, including people with Alzheimer's disease. By 35 years of age, adults with Down's syndrome (DS) develop the characteristic plaques and tangles found in Alzheimer's disease, despite findings indicating that not all older DS individuals meet criteria for dementia. To examine the possibility that glucose(More)