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The mRNA level for cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) increases 2.3-fold, and enzyme activity of NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 63%, in sterol-deprived HepG2 cells. The mRNA levels of the NADP- and NAD-dependent mitochondrial enzymes show limited or lack of regulation under the same conditions. Nucleotide sequences that are(More)
Mammalian squalene synthase (SQS) catalyzes the first reaction of the branch of the isoprenoid metabolic pathway committed specifically to sterol biosynthesis. SQS produces squalene in an unusual two-step reaction in which two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate are condensed head-to-head. Recent studies have advanced understanding of the reaction mechanism,(More)
Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) has been identified as an androgen-response gene in the rat ventral prostate using a highly sensitive PCR-based cDNA subtraction technique. FPPS is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), which is required for cholesterol biosynthesis as well as protein prenylation. We have(More)
Glutaraldehyde treatment of (125)I-labeled low density lipoprotein ((125)I-native-LDL) produced a modified LDL ((125)I-glut-LDL) with a molecular weight of 10 x 10(6) or more. Malondialdehyde treatment of (125)I-native-LDL produced a product ((125)I-MDA-LDL) with a molecular weight not appreciably different from that of the original lipoprotein. However,(More)
Amino acid sequence information was obtained for the NH2 terminus, and for endogenous peptides generated by trypsin digestion, of a purified, truncated form of rat hepatic squalene synthase (RSS, EC 2.5.1.21) (Shechter, I., Klinger, E., Rucker, M. L., Engstrom, R. G., Spirito, J. A., Islam, M. A., Boettcher, B. R., and Weinstein, D. B. (1992) J. Biol. Chem.(More)
Rat hepatic squalene synthase (RSS, EC 2.5.1.21) contains three conserved sections, A, B, and C, that were proposed to be involved in catalysis (McKenzie, T. L., Jiang, G., Straubhaar, J. R., Conrad, D., and Shechter, I. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 21368-21374). Here we use the high expression vector pTrxRSS and site-directed mutagenesis to determine the(More)
Rat liver microsomes devoid of free thiols were prepared in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer in the presence of 30 microM leupeptin. The activation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase by GSH and dithiothreitol (DTT) in these microsomes was studied and compared to the activation by these thiols of(More)
Recent studies have shown that endotoxin (LPS) administration to Syrian hamsters markedly increased hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity, protein mass, and mRNA levels, but only produced a modest increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis, suggesting that LPS may also influence other key enzymes involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. In the(More)
Squalene synthase (SQS) catalyzes the first reaction of the branch of the isoprenoid metabolic pathway committed specifically to sterol biosynthesis. Regulation of SQS is thought to direct proximal intermediates in the pathway into either sterol or nonsterol branches in response to changing cellular requirements. The importance of SQS in cholesterol(More)