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A retrotransposon was isolated and characterized from strain 15A of the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata, which causes black spot disease in certain cultivars of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. The element, which we have named REAL (Retrotransposon of Alternaria alternata), is 6046 bp in size and contains(More)
The lag between beta-amyloid (A beta) deposition and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggests that age-dependent factors are involved in the pathogenesis. Racemization of Ser and Asp in A beta is a typical age-dependent modification in AD. We have shown recently that A beta1-40 racemized at Ser(26) ([D-Ser(26)]A beta 1-40) is soluble and(More)
Fibril formation of amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is considered to be responsible for the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Abeta fibril is formed by a protein misfolding process in which intermolecular beta-sheet interactions become stabilized abnormally. Thus, to develop potential anti-AD drugs, we screened an in-house library to find compounds(More)
Aspergillus terreus produces a unique enzyme, blasticidin S deaminase, which catalyzes the deamination of blasticidin S (BS), and in consequence confers high resistance to the antibiotic. A cDNA clone derived from the structural gene for BS deaminase (BSD) was isolated by transforming Escherichia coli with an Aspergillus cDNA expression library and directly(More)
Nonself recognition in filamentous fungi is conferred by genetic differences at het (heterokaryon incompatibility) loci. When individuals that differ in het specificity undergo hyphal fusion, the heterokaryon undergoes a programmed cell death reaction or is highly unstable. In Neurospora crassa, three allelic specificities at the het-c locus are conferred(More)
Wheat head blight pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Microdochium nivale have distinct sensitivities to strobilurin fungicides, which inhibit activity of complex III in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. When mycelia were cultured in medium with the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin (AZ), F. graminearum increased its oxygen-consumption, but M.(More)
A most critical reaction in the complement system for the elaboration of its biologic effects is the cleavage of the third component, C3, whose major fragment, C3b, can covalently bind (1) to target particles and soluble complexes. The bound C3b, or its degradation products, C3bi and C3d, can then mediate attachment of the target material to erythrocytes(More)
Oligomeric and fibrillar beta-amyloid (Abeta) may be toxic in Alzheimer disease (AD), especially after post-translation modification cumulative over time. Racemization of Ser and Asp residues of Abeta in senile plaques (SPs) occurs as an age-dependent process in AD. We previously reported that Abeta1-40 racemized at Ser26 is soluble and susceptible to(More)
beta-Amyloid peptide is the principal protein in the senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease and is considered to be responsible for the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Several studies have shown that beta-amyloid is cytotoxic, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) as an indicator of viability in cells. Utilizing the MTT(More)