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Recent studies of gliosis in a variety of animal models are reviewed. The models include brain injury, neurotoxic damage, genetic diseases and inflammatory demyelination. These studies show that reactive gliosis is not a stereotypic response, but varies widely in duration, degree of hyperplasia, and time course of expression of GFAP immunostaining, content(More)
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms whereby expanded polyglutamine stretches elicit a gain of toxic function, we expressed full-length and truncated DRPLA (dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy) cDNAs with or without expanded CAG repeats in COS-7 cells. We found that truncated DRPLA proteins containing an expanded polyglutamine stretch form filamentous(More)
We measured the levels of some biological metals: copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with neurodegenerative diseases (52 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)), 21 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 20 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by inductively(More)
At least eight inherited neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expanded CAG repeats encoding polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches. Although cytotoxicities of expanded polyQ stretches are implicated, the molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration remain unclear. We found that expanded polyQ stretches preferentially bind to TAFII130, a coactivator involved in(More)
The nosological position of Bickerstaff's brain stem encephalitis (BBE) has yet to be established, and its etiology is not clear. Because anti-GQ1b antibody frequently occurs in patients with Fisher's syndrome (FS) and there are clinical similarities between FS and BBE, we investigated anti-ganglioside antibodies in sera from 3 BBE patients who had(More)
Metallothioneins (MTs) are small cysteine-rich proteins found widely throughout the mammalian body, including the CNS. MT-1 and -2 protect against reactive oxygen species and free radicals. We investigated the role of MT-1 and -2 using MT-1,-2 knockout (KO) mice. MT-1,-2 KO mice exhibited greater neuronal damage after permanent middle cerebral artery(More)
Prosaposin, the precursor of saposins or saps, is an injury-repair protein that acts on both neurons and glia. Previous studies identified the prosaposin gene as one of differentially expressed genes following nerve injury. In the present study, we investigated expression of prosaposin mRNA in injured brain utilizing rat models of focal cerebral ischemia(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical, genetic, and neuroradiologic presentations of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) in a nationwide study in Japan. METHODS We documented clinical and neuroimaging data of a total of 69 subjects including 23 subjects from 10 families and 46 subjects in sporadic cases of IBGC in Japan. Mutational analysis of(More)
Recently, sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS), a fatal neurological disease, has been shown to be a multisystem proteinopathy of TDP-43 in which both neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system are widely affected. In general, the natural history of SALS is short (<5 years). However, it is also known that a few patients may survive for(More)
Changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the forebrain of rats with stab wounds were determined by quantitative immunoblots and by immunohistochemistry. Bilateral stab wounds were made stereotaxically in the cortex and hippocampus. In control rats, the scalp was retracted and depressions were etched on the intact skull. At various times up to 21(More)