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AIM To determine the distribution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in Benin, and to clarify the virological characteristics of the dominant genotype. METHODS Among 500 blood donors in Benin, 21 HBsAg-positive donors were enrolled in the study. HBV genotypes were determined by enzyme immunoassay and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Complete(More)
In connexion with the recent detection of cases of monkeypox in man in West and Central Africa, the frequency of monkeypox outbreaks in monkeys since 1958, when the disease was first recognized in captive animals, has been investigated. Special incidence surveys were made for this purpose. During the last 3 years, a serological survey has been conducted to(More)
In considering global eradication of smallpox the absence of an animal reservoir is important. Present knowledge of experimental infection of non-human primates with variola virus and of a related virus infection in monkeys, termed monkeypox, is examined.From the literature review and the results of a survey of captive monkeys in 26 major biological(More)
Prospects for the eradication of smallpox are now highly encouraging. With the cessation of man-to-man transmission, the question of possible animal reservoirs of smallpox becomes increasingly important. During the period 1970-1975, 20 cases of a smallpox-like disease were detected in smallpox-free areas of tropical rain forest in West and Central Africa.(More)
In December 1979, an independent scientific commission certified global eradication of smallpox. This conclusion was accepted at the 33d World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) in May 1980. After WHO's intensified eradication program began in 1967, special certification procedures were used in 35 countries where the disease had been(More)
This paper examines an outbreak of five cases of human monkeypox which occurred in children belonging to two families living in the West Kasai region of Zaire during May-July 1983. Epidemiologic investigations suggest that the first case was infected from an animal source, possibly a monkey, and that each of the other four cases was infected from a previous(More)