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Immunity to mycobacterial infection is closely linked to the emergence of T cells that secrete cytokines, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), resulting in macrophage activation and recruitment of circulating monocytes to initiate chronic granuloma formation. The cytokine that mediates macrophage(More)
Diesel exhaust (DE) is composed of particles and gaseous compounds. It has been reported that DE causes pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. We have previously reported that fetal exposure to DE had deleterious effects to the reproductive system of mice offspring. However, there is still little known about the effects of prenatal exposure to DE to the(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies have suggested that suspended particulate matter (SPM) causes detrimental health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and that diesel exhaust particles from automobiles is a major contributor to SPM. It has been reported that neonatal and adult exposure to diesel exhaust damages the central nervous(More)
We devised a new in vitro cell exposure system to freshly generated diesel exhaust (DE), different from conventional in vitro culture systems, to examine the effects of DE on human epithelial cells. Using this system, we investigated the effects of DE on cytokine gene expressions in BET-1A human bronchial epithelial cells. DE significantly decreased(More)
BACKGROUND Activated T lymphocytes are one of the characteristic features of sarcoidosis. The mechanism of T cell activation, expressing various activation markers including interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R), has been extensively investigated but the precise mechanism remains unknown. Although thioredoxin (TRX) displays a number of biological activities(More)
Fine particles derived from diesel engines, diesel exhaust particles (DEP), have been shown to augment gene expression of several inflammatory cytokines in human airway epithelial cells in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether or not DEP have any effect on the expression and production of eotaxin, an important chemokine involved in eosinophil(More)
This study was designed to determine the roles of STAT proteins in defence against mycobacterial infection. Airborne infection of STAT4 knockout (KO) mice with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain induced large granulomas with massive neutrophil infiltration over time, while that in STAT6 KO mice did not. The STAT4 KO mice succumbed to mycobacterial(More)
BACKGROUND Species identification of isolates belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) seems to be important for the appropriate treatment of patients, since M. bovis is naturally resistant to a first line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug, pyrazinamide, while most of the other MTC members are susceptible to this antimicrobial agent. A simple and(More)
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) transgenic mice which had been inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) 24 weeks previously showed resistance against airborne infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv accompanied by an increased CD8(+)-Tc1-cell response. IL-15 may be used as an immune adjuvant given with BCG vaccination to enhance its(More)