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Diesel exhaust (DE) is composed of particles and gaseous compounds. It has been reported that DE causes pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. We have previously reported that fetal exposure to DE had deleterious effects to the reproductive system of mice offspring. However, there is still little known about the effects of prenatal exposure to DE to the(More)
Immunity to mycobacterial infection is closely linked to the emergence of T cells that secrete cytokines, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), resulting in macrophage activation and recruitment of circulating monocytes to initiate chronic granuloma formation. The cytokine that mediates macrophage(More)
P-glycoprotein, an active efflux pump of antitumor agents in multidrug-resistant tumor cells, exists in various normal tissues, including brain capillaries. To study the physiological function of P-glycoprotein expressed in brain capillary endothelium, we established nine mouse brain capillary endothelial cell (MBEC) lines and examined the transport of(More)
Xanthan gum (XG), a microbial polysaccharide produced extracellularly by fermentation of Xanthomonas campestris, has unique physical properties. We studied the effects of XG on murine lymphocytes in vitro and found that XG induced both a significant increase of DNA synthesis in mouse splenic B cells and thymocytes as well as polyclonal IgM and IgG antibody(More)
To test our hypothesis that diesel exhaust particle (DEP)-induced oxidative stress and host antioxidant responses play a key role in the development of DEP-induced airway inflammatory diseases, C57BL/6 nuclear erythroid 2 P45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) knockout (Nrf2(-/-)) and wild-type mice were exposed to low-dose DEP for 7 h/day, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks.(More)
To understand the role of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) in mycobacterial inflammation, IL-1 alpha/beta double-knockout (KO) mice were produced. These mice were infected with either Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv by the airborne route using an airborne infection apparatus, and their capacities to control mycobacterial growth, granuloma(More)
P-glycoprotein (MDR-1) is a well-known transporter that mediates efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from the intracellular milieu and thereby contributes to drug resistance. MDR-1 also is expressed by nonmalignant cells, including leukocytes, but physiologic functions for MDR-1 are poorly defined. Using an initial screening assay that included >100 mAbs, we(More)
One-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis. Tuberculosis continues to be the most common infectious cause of death and still has a serious impact, medically, socially and financially. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), caused by tubercle bacilli that are resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, is among(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies have suggested that suspended particulate matter (SPM) causes detrimental health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and that diesel exhaust particles from automobiles is a major contributor to SPM. It has been reported that neonatal and adult exposure to diesel exhaust damages the central nervous(More)
This study was designed to determine the roles of STAT proteins in defence against mycobacterial infection. Airborne infection of STAT4 knockout (KO) mice with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain induced large granulomas with massive neutrophil infiltration over time, while that in STAT6 KO mice did not. The STAT4 KO mice succumbed to mycobacterial(More)