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Age-related changes in the modulatory action of nitric oxide (NO) on cyclic GMP levels and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the proximal rat trachea were investigated using sodium nitroprusside, 8-bromo-cyclic GMP and okadaic acid. At 24 months, both control activities of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase were decreased when compared to the segments from 4-(More)
Excessive excitatory action of glutamate and nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in degeneration of striatal neurons. Evidence had been provided that Na+K+-ATPase might be involved in this process. Here we investigated whether glutamate-regulated messengers, such as NO and cyclic GMP, could modulate the activity of membrane Na+K+-ATPase. Our results(More)
Several studies have shown involvement of peroxynitrite anion, a potent oxidative agent, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Herein, we assessed in platelets and erythrocytes of AD patients, age-matched and young adults controls: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) production; superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and(More)
Innate immunity is a rapid series of reactions to pathogens, cell injuries and toxic proteins. A key component of this natural response is the production of inflammatory mediators by resident microglia and infiltrating macrophages. There is accumulating evidence that inflammation contributes to acute injuries and more chronic CNS diseases, though other(More)
Regarded as a damaging reaction, innate immune response can either improve or worsen brain outcome after injury. Hence, inflammatory molecules might modulate cell susceptibility or healing events. The remyelination that follows brain lesions is dependent on the recruitment of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and expression of genes controlling(More)
The innate immune response is a coordinated set of reactions involving cells of myeloid lineage and a network of signaling molecules. Such a response takes place in the CNS during trauma, stroke, spinal cord injury, and neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting that macrophages/microglia are the cells that perpetuate the progressive neuronal damage. However,(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether glutamate receptors modulate the innate immune response in the brain of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice; the latter bear a loss of function in the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 gene. Mice received an intrastriatal (IS) infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the exogenous ligand for TLR4, and were killed at several times(More)
The activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) leads to an increase in the expression of genes involved in important events in the central nervous system (CNS), such as development, plasticity and inflammation. It has been shown that inflammatory stimulus in the brain increases excitatory glutamatergic transmission, especially at N-methyl-D-aspartate(More)
We evaluated whether changes in protein content and activity of PP-1 and PP-2A were the mechanism underneath the basal age-related reduction in alpha(2/3)-Na,K-ATPase activity in rats cerebella and whether this occurred through the cyclic GMP-PKG pathway. PP1 activity, but not its expression, increased with age, whereas PP-2 was not changed. The activity of(More)
The innate immune reaction to tissue injury is a natural process, which can have detrimental effects in the absence of negative feedbacks by glucocorticoids (GCs). Although acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge is relatively harmless to the brain parenchyma of adult animals, the endotoxin is highly neurotoxic in animals that are treated with the GC(More)