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Excessive excitatory action of glutamate and nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in degeneration of striatal neurons. Evidence had been provided that Na+K+-ATPase might be involved in this process. Here we investigated whether glutamate-regulated messengers, such as NO and cyclic GMP, could modulate the activity of membrane Na+K+-ATPase. Our results(More)
Innate immunity is a rapid series of reactions to pathogens, cell injuries and toxic proteins. A key component of this natural response is the production of inflammatory mediators by resident microglia and infiltrating macrophages. There is accumulating evidence that inflammation contributes to acute injuries and more chronic CNS diseases, though other(More)
Regarded as a damaging reaction, innate immune response can either improve or worsen brain outcome after injury. Hence, inflammatory molecules might modulate cell susceptibility or healing events. The remyelination that follows brain lesions is dependent on the recruitment of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and expression of genes controlling(More)
Several studies have shown involvement of peroxynitrite anion, a potent oxidative agent, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Herein, we assessed in platelets and erythrocytes of AD patients, age-matched and young adults controls: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) production; superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether glutamate receptors modulate the innate immune response in the brain of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice; the latter bear a loss of function in the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 gene. Mice received an intrastriatal (IS) infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the exogenous ligand for TLR4, and were killed at several times(More)
The innate immune reaction to tissue injury is a natural process, which can have detrimental effects in the absence of negative feedbacks by glucocorticoids (GCs). Although acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge is relatively harmless to the brain parenchyma of adult animals, the endotoxin is highly neurotoxic in animals that are treated with the GC(More)
The activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) leads to an increase in the expression of genes involved in important events in the central nervous system (CNS), such as development, plasticity and inflammation. It has been shown that inflammatory stimulus in the brain increases excitatory glutamatergic transmission, especially at N-methyl-D-aspartate(More)
Glucocorticoids are potent regulators of the innate immune response, and alteration in this inhibitory feedback has detrimental consequences for the neural tissue. This study profiled and investigated functionally candidate genes mediating this switch between cell survival and death during an acute inflammatory reaction subsequent to the absence of(More)
The innate immune response is a coordinated set of reactions involving cells of myeloid lineage and a network of signaling molecules. Such a response takes place in the CNS during trauma, stroke, spinal cord injury, and neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting that macrophages/microglia are the cells that perpetuate the progressive neuronal damage. However,(More)
Cells recruited by the innate immune response rely on surface-expressed molecules in order to receive signals from the local environment and to perform phagocytosis, cell adhesion, and others processes linked to host defense. Hundreds of surface antigens designated through a cluster of differentiation (CD) number have been used to identify particular(More)