Isaiah T. Arkin

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The ability to discriminate between highly similar substrates is one of the remarkable properties of enzymes. For example, transporters and channels that selectively distinguish between various solutes enable living organisms to maintain and control their internal environment in the face of a constantly changing surrounding. Herein, we examine in detail the(More)
Na+/H+ antiporters are central to cellular salt and pH homeostasis. The structure of Escherichia coli NhaA was recently determined, but its mechanisms of transport and pH regulation remain elusive. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of NhaA that, with existing experimental data, enabled us to propose an atomically detailed model of antiporter(More)
Phospholamban is a 52 amino acid residue membrane protein involved with the regulation of calcium levels across sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes in cardiac muscle cells. The N-terminal 30 amino acid residues of the protein are largely hydrophilic and include two sites whose phosphorylation is thought to dissociate an inhibitory complex between phospholamban(More)
The structures of membrane transporters are still mostly unsolved. Only recently, the first two high-resolution structures of transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) were published. Despite the low sequence similarity of the two proteins involved, lactose permease and glycerol-3-phosphate transporter, the reported structures are highly(More)
Syntaxin 1A (Sx1A) modifies the activity of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels acting via the cytosolic and the two vicinal cysteines (271 and 272) at the transmembrane domain. Here we show that Sx1A modulates the Lc-type Ca2+ channel, Cav1.2, in a cooperative manner, and we explore whether channel clustering or the Sx1A homodimer is responsible for this activity.(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that membrane-embedded hydrophobic segments can interact within the phospholipid milieu of the membrane with varying degrees of specificity and thus contribute to the folding and oligomerization of proteins. We have used synthetic peptides corresponding to segments from the hydrophobic core of the Shaker potassium channel as a(More)
Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), the most abundant membrane protein in mammalian lens fiber cells, not only serves as the primary water channel in this tissue but also appears to mediate the formation of thin junctions between fiber cells. AQP0 is remarkably less water permeable than other aquaporins, but the structural basis and biological significance of this low(More)
SUMMARY The genomic abundance and pharmacological importance of membrane proteins have fueled efforts to identify them based solely on sequence information. Previous methods based on the physicochemical principle of a sliding window of hydrophobicity (hydropathy analysis) have been replaced by approaches based on hidden Markov models or neural networks(More)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated invariant chain (Ii) contains a single transmembrane domain that forms trimers. Ii is involved in the assembly of the MHC and antigen presentation, and is thus central to the function of the immune system. Here, we show by attenuated total reflectance, Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy(More)