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The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) delivers intracellular signals through the adaptor DAP12 to regulate myeloid cell function both within and outside the immune system. The role of TREM-2 in immunity has been obscured by the failure to detect expression of the TREM-2 protein in vivo. In this study, we show that TREM-2 is expressed(More)
TREM proteins are a family of cell surface receptors that participate in diverse cell processes, including inflammation, bone homeostasis, neurological development and coagulation. TREM-1, the first to be identified, acts to amplify inflammation. Other TREM proteins regulate the differentiation and function of macrophages, microglia, dendritic cells,(More)
When associated with different receptors, the signalling adaptor DAP12 has been shown to both potentiate and attenuate the activation of leukocytes. But how can a protein with a single signalling motif elicit qualitatively different cellular responses? We describe a model of DAP12 function, whereby the quality of the cellular response (activation or(More)
The PA200 proteasome activator is a broadly expressed nuclear protein. Although how PA200 normally functions is not fully understood, it has been suggested to be involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The PA200 gene (Psme4) is composed of 45 coding exons spanning 108 kb on mouse chromosome 11. We generated a PA200 null allele(More)
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) influences the proliferation and survival of mononuclear phagocytes through the receptor CSF-1R. The adaptor protein DAP12 is critical for the function of mononuclear phagocytes. DAP12-mutant mice and humans have defects in osteoclasts and microglia, as well as brain and bone abnormalities. Here we show DAP12(More)
Homologous aquaporin water channels utilize different folding pathways to acquire their transmembrane (TM) topology in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). AQP4 acquires each of its six TM segments via cotranslational translocation events, whereas AQP1 is initially synthesized with four TM segments and subsequently converted into a six membrane-spanning(More)
The incidence and mortality of sepsis increase with age, consequently, 80% of the clinical mortality from sepsis occurs in patients over age 65. Despite this aged clinical population, most research models of sepsis use 6- to 16-week-old mice as patient surrogates. This age range of mice corresponds to human ages 10 to 17 years. To assess the influence of(More)
The topology of most eukaryotic polytopic membrane proteins is established cotranslationally in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through a series of coordinated translocation and membrane integration events. For the human aquaporin water channel AQP1, however, the initial four-segment-spanning topology at the ER membrane differs from the mature(More)
OBJECTIVE Aging is associated with increased inflammation following sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this represents a fundamental age-based difference in the host response or is secondary to the increased mortality seen in aged hosts. DESIGN Prospective, randomized controlled study. SETTING Animal laboratory in a university(More)
DAP12 (KARAP) is a transmembrane signaling adaptor for a family of innate immunoreceptors that have been shown to activate granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, amplifying production of inflammatory cytokines. Contrasting with these data, recent studies suggest that DAP12 signaling has an inhibitory role in the macrophage response to microbial products(More)