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During the Past decade, nine new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) namely, Felbamate, Gabapentin, Levetiracetam, Lamotrigine, Oxcarbazepine, Tiagabine, Topiramate, Vigabatrin and Zonisamide have been marketed worldwide. The introduction of these drugs increased appreciably the number of therapeutic combinations used in the treatment of epilepsy and with it, the(More)
The objective of this study was to determine if repeated administration of levetiracetam alters the pharmacokinetics or the pharmacodynamics of warfarin. Forty-two healthy subjects (18-50 years old) were recruited into the study. After a dose-finding phase and a stabilization phase, during which a warfarin treatment was introduced and the dose maintained(More)
PURPOSE This study was designed to evaluate whether levetiracetam, a novel antiepileptic drug (AED), influences the pharmacokinetics of steroid oral contraceptives. METHODS During a run-in phase, 18 healthy female patients received an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol, 0.03 mg, and levonorgestrel, 0.15 mg, for the first 21 days of two(More)
The US Food and Drug Administration draft drug interaction guidance recommends that 400 mg ketoconazole (KTZ) be administered once daily for several days (QD400) for maximal CYP3A inhibition. Some investigators suggest that a single dose of 400 mg (SD400) KTZ is sufficient given its short half-life (t(1/2) approximately 3-5 hr). To determine the impact of(More)
As a follow-up to the new classification of CYP3A inhibitors, the present work was undertaken to search for quantitative correlations of AUC ratios between sensitive substrates and midazolam (reference). A large set of clinical studies was obtained utilizing the M&T Drug Interaction Database, and recent Product Labels. Linear relationships were found(More)
Carbamazepine is metabolized by CYP3A4 and several other cytochrome P450 enzymes. The potential effects of zonisamide on carbamazepine pharmacokinetics (PK) have not been well characterized, with contradictory literature reports. Hence, an in vitro study was designed to evaluate the cytochrome P450 inhibition spectrum of zonisamide using human liver(More)
Modeling and simulation of drug disposition has emerged as an important tool in drug development, clinical study design and regulatory review, and the number of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling related publications and regulatory submissions have risen dramatically in recent years. However, the extent of use of PBPK modeling by(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was undertaken to determine whether levetiracetam (Keppra) affected the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic profile of digoxin in healthy adults. METHODS Seven men and four women (19-48 years old) completed this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each received digoxin 0.25 mg once daily (0.5 mg on day 1) during the 1-week run-in(More)
Marked increases in exposure of some substrates have been noted in poor metabolizers given inhibitors of nonpolymorphic enzymes. Among the small number of clinical trials conducted to investigate this problem, a wide variation in the degree of maximum exposure ratios (area under the curve in poor metabolizers in the presence of inhibitor/area under the(More)
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2) limits intestinal absorption of low-permeability substrate drugs and mediates biliary excretion of drugs and metabolites. Based on clinical evidence of BCRP-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and the c.421C>A functional polymorphism affecting drug efficacy and safety, both the US Food and Drug(More)