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Several proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) studies in schizophrenia have found reduced N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentrations in pre-frontal and temporal regions of the brain. Reductions in NAA may reflect abnormalities of neuronal structure (e.g. reduced neuronal density or viability) or abnormalities of neuronal function. Diffusion tensor(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a modality known to be highly sensitive to the detrimental effects of experimental noise. Here, using Monte Carlo simulations, we compare and contrast how noise complicates the measurement of diffusion anisotropy in diffusion tensor and conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). As the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)(More)
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder that typically develops in early adult life. Structural imaging studies have indicated that patients with the illness, and to some extent their unaffected relatives, have subtle deficits in several brain regions, including prefrontal and temporal lobes. It is, however, not known how this inherited vulnerability(More)
Quantification of NMR visible metabolites by spectral modeling usually assumes a Lorentzian or Gaussian lineshape, despite the fact that experimental lineshapes are neither. To minimize systematic fitting errors, a mixed Lorentzian-Gaussian (Voigt) lineshape model was developed. When tested with synthetic FIDs, the Voigt lineshape model gave more accurate(More)
Quantification of MRS spectra is a challenging problem when a large baseline is present along with a low signal to noise ratio. This work investigates a robust fitting technique that yields accurate peak areas under these conditions. Using simulated long echo time (1)H MRS spectra with low signal to noise ratio and a large baseline component, both the(More)
  • I D Marshall, G M Woodroofe, S Hirsch
  • 1982
Pools of mosquitoes collected in the Murray Valley in February, 1974, during an encephalitis epidemic yielded 239 isolates of 11 distinct viruses. These included 39 isolates of MVE virus, an incriminated causative agent of encephalitis in man, and 111 isolates of Kunjin virus, a probable causative agent. An additional isolate of MVE virus was recovered from(More)
Variants of the prototype Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE-1-51) were selected by serial plaque purification and amplification in monkey kidney (Vero) cells. Four clones (C1-C4) at passage levels two and nine (P2 and P9) were examined in 21-day-old Swiss outbred mice for neuroinvasiveness (assessed from LD50 values after intraperitoneal inoculation)(More)
OBJECTIVES Patients with type II diabetes are at increased risk of cognitive impairment. The retinal and renal complications of diabetes follow microvascular damage permitting small arterioles to leak, hence the cerebral damage might also follow loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Magnetic resonance (MR) brain imaging with intravenous gadolinium(More)
We studied the reproducibility of metabolite signals (from N-acetyl aspartate [NAA], choline, and creatine) measured with a standard single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy technique (PRESS, TE = 135 ms, 8 ml VOI) in vitro and in two groups of normal volunteers. Spectral peak areas were quantified both by integration and by curve-fitting. In the(More)
Most patients with sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) are middle-aged men. As there are conflicting data on the effects of age and gender on upper airway calibre, we tested the hypothesis that increasing age and the male sex predispose to upper airway narrowing in normal subjects. We measured upper airway calibre using acoustic reflection in 60 men and(More)