Isabelle Dupanloup

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We present a new approach for defining groups of populations that are geographically homogeneous and maximally differentiated from each other. As a by-product, it also leads to the identification of genetic barriers between these groups. The method is based on a simulated annealing procedure that aims to maximize the proportion of total genetic variance due(More)
Given that retroposed copies of genes are presumed to lack the regulatory elements required for their expression, retroposition has long been considered a mechanism without functional relevance. However, through an in silico assay for transcriptional activity, we identify here >1,000 transcribed retrocopies in the human genome, of which at least(More)
The relative contribution of two parental populations to a hybrid group (the admixture proportions) can be estimated using not only the frequencies of different alleles, but also the degree of molecular divergence between them. In this paper, we extend this possibility to the case of any number of parental populations. The newly derived multiparental(More)
Here, palaeobotanical and genetic data for common beech (Fagus sylvatica) in Europe are used to evaluate the genetic consequences of long-term survival in refuge areas and postglacial spread. Four large datasets are presented, including over 400 fossil-pollen sites, 80 plant-macrofossil sites, and 450 and 600 modern beech populations for chloroplast and(More)
The origin of new genes through gene duplication is fundamental to the evolution of lineage- or species-specific phenotypic traits. In this report, we estimate the number of functional retrogenes on the lineage leading to humans generated by the high rate of retroposition (retroduplication) in primates. Extensive comparative sequencing and expression(More)
We introduce a flexible and robust simulation-based framework to infer demographic parameters from the site frequency spectrum (SFS) computed on large genomic datasets. We show that our composite-likelihood approach allows one to study evolutionary models of arbitrary complexity, which cannot be tackled by other current likelihood-based methods. For simple(More)
We analyzed mtDNA sequence variation in 590 individuals from 18 south Amerindian populations. The spatial pattern of mtDNA diversity in these populations fits well the model proposed on the basis of Y-chromosome data. We found evidence of a differential action of genetic drift and gene flow in western and eastern populations, which has led to genetic(More)
We have analyzed mtDNA HVI sequences and Y chromosome haplogroups based on 11 binary markers in 371 individuals, from 11 populations in the Caucasus and the neighbouring countries of Turkey and Iran. Y chromosome haplogroup diversity in the Caucasus was almost as high as in Central Asia and the Near East, and significantly higher than in Europe. More than(More)
We investigate the effect of spatial range expansions on the evolution of fitness when beneficial and deleterious mutations cosegregate. We perform individual-based simulations of 1D and 2D range expansions and complement them with analytical approximations for the evolution of mean fitness at the edge of the expansion. We find that deleterious mutations(More)
During the late Pleistocene, early anatomically modern humans coexisted in Europe with the anatomically archaic Neandertals for some thousand years. Under the recent variants of the multiregional model of human evolution, modern and archaic forms were different but related populations within a single evolving species, and both have contributed to the gene(More)