Isabelle D. Kalmar

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Chickens have been raised as food for human consumption for over 4000 years. Over this time they have been continuously selected for specific desirable characteristics by active selection of parents to produce birds which fit perceived needs. Despite this long history of selective breeding and improvements in rearing techniques, the efficiency with which(More)
Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen with a wide range of avian hosts and worldwide geographical spread. Zoonotic transfer occurs by inhalation or direct contact and may cause psittacosis or parrot disease. Host reservoirs of particular epidemiological interest include gregarious or migratory species, as colonial behavior facilitates microbial spread(More)
The current study first investigates the emulsifying potential of glycine and its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine), N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) and N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine) under varying pH conditions. Subsequently, the effect of these test compounds on the membrane integrity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was(More)
INTRODUCTION In order to investigate the role of roe deer in the maintenance and transmission of infectious animal and human diseases in Flanders, we conducted a serologic screening in 12 hunting areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS Roe deer sera collected between 2008 and 2013 (n=190) were examined for antibodies against 13 infectious agents, using indirect(More)
Parrots are commonly fed multi-component seed diets; however, both segregation and feeding behaviour might alter ingredient and nutrient composition of the offered diet. First, the nutritional impact of segregation was assessed as it occurs when multi-component diets are temporarily stored in food containers that are replenished before completely emptied(More)
Emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) resulted in massive neonatal mortality in the North-American and Asian pork industry. Measures to prevent its geographical spread are of utmost importance to safeguard susceptible porcine populations. The major infection route is direct or indirect faecal-oral contact. Adequate biosafety measures should be(More)
We address housing, refinements of husbandry, and some concerns regarding the use of parrots as laboratory animals. Because the duration of a project is most likely brief relative to the lifespan of the bird, among the most important goals is a well-established socialization program to maximize success of rehoming the birds after laboratory housing. We also(More)
Sera of 30 Belgian and 10 Northern French chicken farms were tested by a Chlamydia (C.) psittaci major outer membrane protein (MOMP) based ELISA. Ninety-six percent, 93% and 90% of the Belgian broilers, broiler breeders and layers were seropositive. Ninety-one percent of the French broilers were seropositive. In addition, tissues of 5 Belgian and 5 French(More)
The Psittaciformes are a large order of landbirds comprising over 350 species in about 83 genera. In 2009, 141 published studies implicated parrots as research subjects; in 31 of these studies, 483 individuals from 45 different species could be considered laboratory animals. Amazons and budgerigars were by far the most represented psittacine species. The(More)
N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is an intermediary metabolite in cellular choline and betaine metabolism. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary DMG on nutrient digestibility and development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers. A total of 64 14-day-old broiler hens (Ross-308) were raised until age 40 days under cold environmental(More)