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The results presented herein demonstrate that apelin is expressed and secreted by both human and mouse adipocytes. Apelin mRNA levels in isolated adipocytes are close to other cell types present in white adipose tissue or other organs known to express apelin such as kidney, heart, and to a lesser extent brown adipose tissue. Apelin expression is increased(More)
Apelin, an adipocyte-secreted factor upregulated by insulin, is increased in adipose tissue (AT) and plasma with obesity. Apelin was recently identified as a new player in the control of glucose homeostasis. However, the regulation of apelin and APJ (apelin receptor) expression in skeletal muscle in relation to insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes is not(More)
Both acute and chronic apelin treatment have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in mice. However, the effects of apelin on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) during obesity-related insulin resistance have not yet been addressed. Thus, the aim of the current study was to determine the impact of chronic treatment on lipid use, especially in skeletal muscles.(More)
Insulin resistance is a main feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance have been proposed. Adipose tissue modulates metabolism by secreting a variety of factors, which exhibit altered production during obesity. Apelin, a small peptide present in a number of tissues and also produced and(More)
OBJECTIVE Apelin is a novel adipokine acting on APJ receptor, regulated by insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in adipose tissue (AT). Plasma apelin levels are increased in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. The aim was to investigate whether the hypocaloric diet associated with weight loss modifies the elevated plasma apelin levels and the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Glucose is absorbed into intestine cells via the sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2); various peptides and hormones control this process. Apelin is a peptide that regulates glucose homeostasis and is produced by proximal digestive cells; we studied whether glucose modulates apelin secretion by(More)
By using pangenomic microarray, we identified apelin as a unique adipokine up regulated by the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) in human white adipocytes. We investigated its regulation in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of PGC-1alpha by adenovirus in human(More)
Catecholamines regulate white adipose tissue function and development by acting through beta- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors (ARs). Human adipocytes express mainly alpha 2A- but few or no beta 3-ARs while the reverse is true for rodent adipocytes. Our aim was to generate a mouse model with a human-like alpha2/beta-adrenergic balance in adipose tissue by(More)
Various studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has beneficial effects on obesity and associated disorders. Apelin, the ligand of APJ receptor also exerts insulin-sensitizing effects especially by improving muscle metabolism. EPA has been shown to increase apelin production in adipose tissue but its effects in muscle have not been addressed.(More)