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It has been suggested that gesture engrams, conceptual knowledge and/or the ability to infer function from structure can support object use. The present paper proposes an alternative view which is based upon the idea that object use requires solely the ability to reason about technical means provided by objects. Technical means are abstract principles which(More)
The immune system contains natural regulatory T cells that control the magnitude of the immune response during physiologic and pathologic conditions. Although this suppressive function was historically attributed to CD8 T cells, most recent reports have focused on natural regulatory CD4 T cells. In the present study, we describe a new subset of natural CD8(More)
Alpha interferons (alpha-IFNs) are potent biologically active proteins synthesized and secreted by somatic cells during viral infection. Quantification of alpha-IFN concentrations in biological samples is used for diagnosis. More recently, recombinant IFNs have been used as antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents, and(More)
Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a major complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and occurs when donor T cells react with histo-incompatible recipient's antigens. In the present study, we analyzed the contribution of CD4 T cell subsets, defined according to their CD45RC expression level, in the development of acute and chronic GvHD. For(More)
Multiple sclerosis, the most common cause of progressive neurological disability in young adults, is a chronic inflammatory disease. There is solid evidence for a genetic influence in multiple sclerosis, and deciphering the causative genes could reveal key pathways influencing the disease. A genome region on rat chromosome 9 regulates experimental(More)
LEW and BN rats, that behave in opposite ways for their susceptibility to various immune-mediated diseases, provide a powerful model to investigate the molecular and genetic bases of immune system physiology and dysregulation. Using this model, we addressed the question of the genetic control of central nervous system autoimmunity, of xenobiotic-induced(More)
Autoreactive anti–MHC class II T cells are found in Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis (LEW) rats that receive either HgCl 2 or gold salts. These T cells have a T helper cell 2 (Th2) phenotype in the former strain and are responsible for Th2-mediated autoimmunity. In contrast, T cells that expand in LEW rats produce IL-2 and prevent experimental autoimmune(More)
Heparin-affin regulatory peptide (HARP) and Midkine (MK) belong to a family of growth/differentiation factors that have a high affinity for heparin. The involvement of these molecules in various proliferative diseases prompted us to develop an assay for measuring the concentrations of these factors in biological fluids and culture media. This report(More)
Spontaneous or chemically induced germline mutations, which lead to Mendelian phenotypes, are powerful tools to discover new genes and their functions. Here, we report an autosomal recessive mutation that occurred spontaneously in a Brown-Norway (BN) rat colony and was identified as causing marked T cell lymphopenia. This mutation was stabilized in a new(More)
We report on a soluble (s) form of CD21 (the C3dg/Epstein-Barr virus receptor, CR2) that is spontaneously released by B and T lymphocytes. Immunoprecipitation with anti-CD21 mAb of culture supernatants of surface and biosynthetically labeled B and T cell lines revealed a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 135 kDa. The molecule exhibited a(More)