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BACKGROUND The Gram-negative bacterium Photorhabdus asymbiotica (Pa) has been recovered from human infections in both North America and Australia. Recently, Pa has been shown to have a nematode vector that can also infect insects, like its sister species the insect pathogen P. luminescens (Pl). To understand the relationship between pathogenicity to insects(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 subverts host cells through a type III secretion system encoded by the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). Genome sequencing of this pathotype revealed the existence of a gene cluster encoding components of a second cryptic type III secretion system, E. coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2). Recently,(More)
The role of the neuroendocrine environment in the pathogenesis of enteric bacterial infections is increasingly being recognized. Here we report that norepinephrine augments Escherichia coli O157:H7-induced intestinal inflammatory and secretory responses as well as bacterial adherence to intestinal mucosa in a bovine ligated ileal loop model of infection.(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains comprise a broad group of bacteria, some of which cause attaching and effacing (AE) lesions and enteritis in humans and animals. Non-O157:H7 EHEC strains contain the gene efa-1 (referred to in previous publications as efa1), which influences adherence to cultured epithelial cells. An almost identical gene in(More)
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections in humans are frequently associated with direct or indirect contact with ruminant faeces and may result in haemorrhagic colitis and severe renal and neurological sequelae. Broadly cross-protective vaccines for control of EHEC do not yet exist and the molecular mechanisms that influence bacterial(More)
Beyond their role in cell metabolism, development, and reproduction, hormones are also important modulators of the immune system. In the context of inflammatory disorders, systemic administration of pharmacological doses of synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory treatment [1, 2]. However, not all actions of GCs are(More)
Drosophila embryos are well studied developmental microcosms that have been used extensively as models for early development and more recently wound repair. Here we extend this work by looking at embryos as model systems for following bacterial infection in real time. We examine the behaviour of injected pathogenic (Photorhabdus asymbiotica) and(More)
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes bloody diarrhoea in humans and deploys a type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement to elicit the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on intestinal epithelia. Here, we report the identification of a new secreted substrate of this system, z1829, which is(More)
Intimin facilitates intestinal colonization by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7; however, the importance of intimin binding to its translocated receptor (Tir) as opposed to cellular coreceptors is unknown. The intimin-Tir interaction is needed for optimal actin assembly under adherent bacteria in vitro, a process which requires the(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli contain a large chromosomal gene (lifA) that encodes lymphostatin, a predicted 365 kDa protein that inhibits the mitogen-activated proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and lamina propria mononuclear cells and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Non-O157 serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) contain(More)