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Drosophila embryos are well studied developmental microcosms that have been used extensively as models for early development and more recently wound repair. Here we extend this work by looking at embryos as model systems for following bacterial infection in real time. We examine the behaviour of injected pathogenic (Photorhabdus asymbiotica) and(More)
The role of the neuroendocrine environment in the pathogenesis of enteric bacterial infections is increasingly being recognized. Here we report that norepinephrine augments Escherichia coli O157:H7-induced intestinal inflammatory and secretory responses as well as bacterial adherence to intestinal mucosa in a bovine ligated ileal loop model of infection.(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains comprise a broad group of bacteria, some of which cause attaching and effacing (AE) lesions and enteritis in humans and animals. Non-O157:H7 EHEC strains contain the gene efa-1 (referred to in previous publications as efa1), which influences adherence to cultured epithelial cells. An almost identical gene in(More)
The Gram-negative bacterium Photorhabdus asymbiotica (Pa) has been recovered from human infections in both North America and Australia. Recently, Pa has been shown to have a nematode vector that can also infect insects, like its sister species the insect pathogen P. luminescens (Pl). To understand the relationship between pathogenicity to insects and humans(More)
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections in humans are frequently associated with direct or indirect contact with ruminant faeces and may result in haemorrhagic colitis and severe renal and neurological sequelae. Broadly cross-protective vaccines for control of EHEC do not yet exist and the molecular mechanisms that influence bacterial(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 subverts host cells through a type III secretion system encoded by the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). Genome sequencing of this pathotype revealed the existence of a gene cluster encoding components of a second cryptic type III secretion system, E. coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2). Recently,(More)
Beyond their role in cell metabolism, development, and reproduction, hormones are also important modulators of the immune system. In the context of inflammatory disorders, systemic administration of pharmacological doses of synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory treatment [1, 2]. However, not all actions of GCs are(More)
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes bloody diarrhoea in humans and deploys a type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement to elicit the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on intestinal epithelia. Here, we report the identification of a new secreted substrate of this system, z1829, which is(More)
Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the humoral arm of innate immunity because of the developmental and functional parallels with mammalian innate immunity. However, the fly cellular response to infection is far less understood. Investigative work on Drosophila haemocytes, the immunosurveillance cells of the insect, has revealed that(More)
Protective monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of species of the family Chlamydiaceae, which is the primary vaccine candidate antigen, recognize nonlinear epitopes conferred by the oligomeric conformation of the molecule. Protective MAbs failed to recognize oligomeric MOMP of the variant strain LLG, which bears amino acid(More)