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The preliminary results of a clinical safety review that partly used the Cochrane methodology are presented. Despite methodological limitations including incomplete databases, this review collated evidence corroborating the benign safety profile of the artemisinin type of compounds. No difference was apparent amongst the various derivatives. At the time the(More)
Several risk stratification systems have been proposed for predicting development of diabetic foot ulcer. However, little has been published that assesses their similarities and disparities, diagnostic accuracy and evidence level. Consequently, we conducted a systematic review of the existing stratification systems. We searched the MEDLINE database for(More)
BACKGROUND The analytical validation of sensitive, accurate and standardized Real-Time PCR methods for Trypanosoma cruzi quantification is crucial to provide a reliable laboratory tool for diagnosis of recent infections as well as for monitoring treatment efficacy. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We have standardized and validated a multiplex Real-Time(More)
Artemisinin and its derivates are an important class of antimalarial drug and are described to possess immunomodulatory activities. Few studies have addressed the effect of artesunate in the murine malaria model or its effect on host immune response during malaria infection. Herein, we study the effect of artesunate treatment and describe an auxiliary(More)
OBJECTIVES Preparatory to a community trial investigating how best to deliver rectal artesunate as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria; local understanding, perceptions of signs/symptoms of severe malaria and treatment-seeking patterns for and barriers to seeking biomedical treatment were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS 19 key informant(More)
In North America, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis caused by Try-panosoma cruzi) was first reported in Mexico in 1940 [1] and in the United States in Texas in 1955 [2]. However, based on ancient mummified remains discovered in the Rio Grande Valley, human T. cruzi infection has been present in North Amer-ica since prehistoric times [3]. T. cruzi is(More)
BACKGROUND Rectal administration of artemisinin derivatives has potential for early treatment for severe malaria in remote settings where injectable antimalarial therapy may not be feasible. Preparations available include artesunate, artemisinin, artemether and dihydroartemisinin. However each may have different pharmacokinetic properties and more(More)
BACKGROUND Many patients with malaria of increasing severity cannot take medicines orally, and delay in injectable treatment can be fatal. We aimed to assess the reliability of absorption, antimalarial efficacy, and tolerability of a single rectal dose of artesunate in the initial management of moderately severe falciparum malaria. METHODS 109 children(More)
BACKGROUND Most malaria deaths occur in rural areas. Rapid progression from illness to death can be interrupted by prompt, effective medication. Antimalarial treatment cannot rescue terminally ill patients but could be effective if given earlier. If patients who cannot be treated orally are several hours from facilities for injections, rectal artesunate can(More)