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UNLABELLED Controversy surrounds whether running mechanics make good predictors of running economy (RE) with little known about the development of an economical running gait. PURPOSE The aim of this study was to identify if mechanical or physiological variables changed during 10 wk of running in beginners and whether these changes could account for any(More)
OBJECTIVES Muscular coactivation can help stabilise a joint, but contrasting results in previous gait studies highlight that it is not clear whether this is metabolically beneficial. The aim was to assess the relationship between the metabolic cost of running and muscular coactivation across different running speeds, in addition to assessing the reliability(More)
This pilot study investigated whether a 10-week running program (10wkRP), which reduced the oxygen cost of running, affected resultant ground reaction force (GRF), leg axis alignment, joint moment characteristics, and gear ratios. Ten novice, female runners completed a 10wkRP. Running kinematics and kinetics, in addition to oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 )(More)
Interest in barefoot running and research on barefoot running are growing. However a methodological issue surrounding investigations is how familiar the participants are with running barefoot. The aim of the study was to assess the amount of time required for habitually shod runners to become familiar with barefoot treadmill running. Twelve female(More)
Cricket was the first sport to publish recommended methods for injury surveillance in 2005. Since then, there have been changes to the nature of both cricket and injury surveillance. Researchers representing the major cricket playing nations met to propose changes to the previous recommendations, with an agreed voting block of 14. It was decided that 10 of(More)
Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an(More)
OBJECTIVE The primary aim was to assess experience and knowledge of adult concussion among international, professional and semiprofessional players, coaches, medical staff, and referees within Rugby Union. The secondary aim was to identify preferred education dissemination routes. DESIGN Questionnaires devised specifically for players, coaches, medical(More)
Sweating rate, rectal and skin temperatures and respiration rate were measured at weekly intervals from 7 days of age (for 4 weeks in Experiment 1; 6 weeks in Experiment 2) in winter- and summer-born Friesian calves exposed to a temperature of 39 degrees C dry bulb and 32 degrees C wet bulb in a climate chamber. Four calves were studied in each season in(More)
BACKGROUND Within international Rugby Union, only injury rates during the Rugby World Cup have been reported. Therefore, injury rates and types during other international tournaments are unknown. PURPOSE To assess the 3-year incidence, severity, nature, and causes of match and training injuries sustained during different international tournaments played(More)