Isabel Fernández-Conejero

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OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to identify neurophysiologic markers generated by primary motor and premotor cortex for laryngeal muscles, recorded from laryngeal muscle. METHODS Ten right-handed healthy subjects underwent navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and 18 patients underwent direct cortical stimulation (DCS) over the left(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish a methodology for recording corticobulbar motor evoked potentials (CoMEPs) from vocal muscles after transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) and direct cortical stimulation (DCS). METHODS Twenty-four patients were included in this study (22 for TES, 2 for DCS, 3 for TES plus DCS) that underwent different surgical procedures. We(More)
OBJECT Until now there has been no reliable stimulation protocol for inducing transient language disruptions while mapping Broca's area. Despite the promising data of only a few studies in which speech arrest and language disturbances have been induced, certain concerns have been raised. The purpose of this study was to map Broca's area by using(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish the methodology for recording corticobulbar motor evoked potentials (CoMEPs) from cricothyroid muscles (CTHY) elicited by transcranial electrical (TES) and direct cortical stimulation (DCS). METHODS Six healthy subjects and 18 patients undergoing brain surgery were included in the study. In six healthy subjects as well as in nine(More)
Until now, there have been no reports on eliciting the blink reflex (BR) during anesthesia at a depth compatible with surgery. We introduce a novel method for eliciting the R1 component of the BR under inhalation or total intravenous anesthesia by using a short train of four to seven stimuli applied over the supraorbital nerve. Recording is done from the(More)
There is evidence that primary hemifacial spasm (HFS) in the majority of patients is related to a vascular compression of the facial nerve at its root exit zone (REZ). As a consequence, the hyperexcitability of facial nerve generates spasms of the facial muscles. Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the facial nerve near its REZ has been established as an(More)
The risk of iatrogenic damage is very high in surgical interventions in or around the brainstem. However, surgical techniques and intraoperative neuromonitoring (ION) have evolved sufficiently to increase the likelihood of successful functional outcomes in many patients. We present a critical review of the methodologies available for intraoperative(More)
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