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The worldwide phenomenon of shrub encroachment in grass-dominated dryland ecosystems is commonly associated with desertification. Studies of the purported desertification effects associated with shrub encroachment are often restricted to relatively few study areas, and document a narrow range of possible impacts upon biota and ecosystem processes. We(More)
This study explored the relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem among 1,239 11- to 15-yr.-old Brazilian adolescents (54% girls; M age= 13.4 yr., SD= 1.4). Teenagers' families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, or Neglectful) based on adolescents' answers to the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale.(More)
Destruction and fragmentation of habitats represent one of the most important threats for biodiversity. Here, we examined the effects of fragmentation in Mediterranean forests on the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (Lobariaceae). We tested the hypothesis that not only the level of fragmentation affects L. pulmonaria populations, but also the quality of(More)
The relationship of parenting styles with adolescents' outcomes was analyzed within a sample of Spanish adolescents. A sample of 1456 teenagers from 13 to 16 years of age, of whom 54.3% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. The teenagers' parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or(More)
Because the number of fungal species (mycobionts) exceeds the number of algae and cyanobacteria (photobionts) found in lichens by more than two orders of magnitude, reciprocal one-to-one specificity between one fungal species and one photobiont across their entire distribution is not expected in this symbiotic system, and has not previously been observed.(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotic-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, especially those resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, have spread with remarkable rapidity in many Caribbean countries. GOAL The goal of the study was to survey the antibiotic susceptibilities of N gonorrhoeae strains isolated from 1995 to 1999 in Cuba and to discuss the impact of(More)
Observed levels of population genetic diversity are often associated with differences in species dispersal and reproductive strategies. In symbiotic organisms, the genetic diversity level of each biont should also be highly influenced by biont transmission. In this study, we evaluated the influence of the reproductive strategies of cyanolichen species on(More)
The current classification of what used to be called Catapyrenium comprises eight genera belonging to distinct lineages in the Verrucariaceae. Previous phylogenetic studies have shown that the redefined genus Catapyrenium (Catapyrenium s. str.) is monophyletic and sister of Placidiopsis within the Staurothele group, but this relationship was based on only(More)
It is necessary to understand how environmental changes affect plant fitness to predict survival of a species, but this knowledge is scarce for lichens and complicated by their formation of sexual and asexual reproductive structures. Are the presence and number of reproductive structures in Lobaria pulmonaria, a threatened lichen, dependent on thallus size,(More)
The relation between parenting styles and adolescent outcomes was analyzed in a sample of 1,198 15-18-year-old Brazilians. The adolescents were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful) on the basis of their own ratings of their parents on two dimensions: Acceptance/ Involvement and Strictness/Imposition. The(More)