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The central nervous system (CNS) has evolved as an immune-privileged site to protect its vital functions from damaging immune-mediated inflammation. There must be a CNS-adapted system of surveillance that continuously evaluates local changes in the nervous system and communicates to the peripheral immune system during an injury or a disease. Recent advances(More)
OBJECT Little is known about the quantitative modulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I expression on human gliomas that is effected by interferons; even less is known about the immunogenic peptides that are accommodated in the peptide-binding motifs of MHC Class I alleles in these brain tumors. In this article the authors investigated(More)
OBJECT Observation is an important consideration when discussing management options for patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). Most data regarding clinical outcomes after conservative management come from modestsized series performed at individual centers. The authors performed an analysis of the published literature on the natural history of VSs with(More)
OBJECT Outcomes following vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery have been extensively described; however, complication rates reported in the literature vary markedly. In addition, the majority of reports have focused on outcomes related to cranial nerves (CNs) VII and VIII. The objective of this study was to analyze reported morbidity unrelated to CNs VII and(More)
Radiosurgery has evolved into an effective alternative to microsurgical resection in the treatment of patients with vestibular schwannoma. We performed a systematic analysis of the literature in English on the radiosurgical treatment of vestibular schwannoma patients. A total of 254 published studies reported assessable and quantifiable outcome data of(More)
Preservation of hearing is a major goal of surgery for patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). We performed an analysis of the published literature on hearing outcome after microsurgery for VS. Our objective was to provide a comprehensive and unbiased description of published results. We completed a comprehensive search of the English language literature,(More)
OBJECTIVE Most data regarding facial nerve function in patients undergoing microsurgical resection of vestibular schwannomas predominantly include series performed at a single institution. In an effort to minimise individual surgeon or institutional bias, we performed an analysis of the published literature on facial nerve outcomes following microsurgical(More)
Postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy and temozolomide chemotherapy have become the standard care for newly diagnosed malignant gliomas. The efficacy of these therapies has led to an increase in pseudoprogression and radiation necrosis, both of which are treatment-related effects whose appearance on standard MRI with gadolinium-based contrast agents(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) historically has been considered an immune-privileged organ, lacking a lymphatic system and shielded from the circulatory system by the blood-brain barrier. Microglia are an abundant portion of the CNS cell population, comprising 5% to 20% of the total glial cell population, and are as numerous as neurons. A crucial function(More)
OBJECT Although secondary gliosarcoma after treatment of primary glioblastoma multiforme has been described, little is known of these rare tumors. In this article the authors review the literature on secondary gliosarcoma, with attention to clinical course and pathological features. METHODS A PubMed search of the key word intracranial "gliosarcoma" with(More)